Magazine article Addiction Professional

Oral Health a Concern for Providers to Chew On

Magazine article Addiction Professional

Oral Health a Concern for Providers to Chew On

Article excerpt

Among the many ways in which substance use disorder wreaks havoc on a persons well-being, oral health often is an overlooked component. Nevertheless, the effects that illicit substances and misuse of prescribed medications can have on teeth, gums and the oral cavity can also lead to other health concerns, all of which greatly hinder recovery.

For that reason, Mark Calarco, MD, the national medical director for American Addiction Centers (AAC), says his aim for AAC facilities is to be true medical homes for clients, and not only places that directly treat addictions and co-occurring disorders.

"Sometimes, we think of oral health as being secondary behind those other issues in priority, but the research is showing it's just as critical as any other aspect," Calarco says.

"Meth mouth"-severe tooth decay and gum disease-is a commonly known result of methamphetamine use, as illustrated by a 2015 National Institute on Drug Abuse study in which 96% of methamphetamine users in were found to have cavities'. But other substances, from opioids to cocaine to even marijuana, have been shown to cause damage to the mouth. A 2005 study appearing in the British Dental Journal found that 95% of all illicit drug users surveyed reported experiencing dry mouth, while 75% experienced a "chewing" sensation, 56% felt pain or tenderness in their jaw muscle or jaw joint, and 52% developed a habit of grinding their teeth2.

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS

Dry mouth in particular opens the door to a series of other oral health problems, says Harold Katz, DDS, founder of the California Breath Clinics.

"Healthy mouths are always in balance, which means you have plenty of saliva," Katz says. "Saliva does a lot of beneficial things. Not only does it keep your breath fresh, it prevents tooth decay and gum disease because of the enzymes in saliva, as well as minerals and oxygen." A lack of saliva can also eventually lead to the beginning of gingivitis, bleeding gums and the loss of teeth, Katz adds.

Oral health problems stemming from substance use put patients at an increased risk for other ailments as well. The oral cavity is its own microbiome with its own set of bacteria, says Calarco. Imbalances in that microbiome heighten the potential for heart attack, cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes.

Both Katz and Calarco note that pregnant women face even more risks, including preterm labor and miscarriages. When patients have bleeding gums, the open wound sites created in the mouth allow toxins to enter the bloodstream and cross the placenta, affecting the baby, Katz says. …

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