American Jihadis are not a product of Islam. Their emergence is
connected to issues of gender and a growing acceptance of violence
The recent arrest in Yemen of Somali-American Sharif Mobley,
accused of being a member of an Al Qaeda affiliated group, raises
the question: Why are young American men abandoning this country's
promise and opportunities to pursue jihad in foreign countries with
groups rooted in anti-Americanism?
From concerned citizens to journalists to think tank panels to
Capitol Hill, everyone seems to think that the key to understanding
"why" these men have turned against America lies in the pathology of
Islam. But they're missing something big.
Reporters offer blow-by-blow accounts of these men's religious
observance, dwelling on which mosques they attended, which imams
they heeded, what clothing they wore, and which verses of the Koran
Security experts tend to see only a threat of Islamicization and
the incompatibility of Islam with American values.
Even Maj. Nidal Malik Hasan, who killed his fellow soldiers at a
time when violent crime and suicide in the military are both on the
rise, is cited regularly as an example of home-grown terror with
little to no mention of other contributing factors.
By focusing on religion, the discussion about the radicalization
of Muslim American youth ignores the more salient factors: gender
and an American acceptance of violence.
The literature on masculinity, boys, and violence is well
developed, yet seemingly disregarded in examinations of these Muslim
Americans. What if we were to invite such experts into this
Dr. Rhea Almeida, founder of the Institute for Family Services
and who works with Muslim American boys, explains that this
radicalization is rooted in the same sorts of dynamics that can lead
other boys to other kinds of violence from gangs to school shootings
- essentially, the need to find status and assert masculinity in a
society where they are marginalized and thereby emasculated, whether
for their race, class, ethnicity, sexuality, disability, or
Of course, being marginalized within the greater American society
is not the only factor. The diverse, toxic cocktail that can lead an
individual to choose violence (and it is a choice) includes mental-
health issues and problems in his family, school, personal, and
community lives as well. These combined factors need to be examined
if we want to understand why individuals turn to radicalization -
not just the sura of the Koran.
The alienation that can lead Muslim American youth, already
sensitive and on the defense for being a misunderstood minority in
America, to radicalization is further compounded by the fact that
there are few spaces in which disaffected young Americans can
express their legitimate dissent, frustration, and anger with
certain government policies.
In the absence of places where legitimate concerns about both
domestic and foreign policy can be explored in the flesh, among a
multitude of voices (including women), and in a real-time give-and-
take, youth go "underground" or to the Internet. …