Anxiety over nuclear radiation isn't new, and purveyors of pop
culture have profited handsomely. But even with more serious films
on the subject, the public is still largely ignorant of the science.
Fears about radiation escaping from the crippled Japanese nuclear
power plant are encircling the globe.
But while this worry over unseen dangers may complicate life for
government and corporate officials outside Japan, it isn't new.
Nuclear anxiety has been around almost since the dawn of the atomic
age - and pop culture purveyors have exploited it richly since the
advent of mass media.
Films such as the Godzilla franchise that began in 1954 depicted
the first radiation-mutated lizard destroying Tokyo in the Japanese
version, and the "Incredible Shrinking Man" in 1957 showed a sailor
who navigates through a mysterious cloud and soon shrinks to
Comic books from this era are rife with radiation themes, from
the ubiquitous Spider-Man, who is born from the bite of a radiated
spider, to the Hulk, who emerges from a lab experiment gone wrong.
Movies and comic books have come up with a visual equivalent of
radiation, says Rob Latham, associate professor of English at UC
Riverside, who teaches a course in 1950s science fiction.
"Giant ants or Godzilla are a visual symbol of radiation," he
says. "The actual monsters produced by radioactive radiation are a
spectacular way of visualizing radioactivity since you can't
actually see it. Having Godzilla come from the ocean or giant ants
running around Los Angeles from the desert is a way to represent the
effects of an invisible force."
Radiation was seen as beneficial
Radioactivity was not always seen as a negative power. In the
early days of radium research, it was considered beneficial. Early
uses included such popular items as "radium suppositories," points
out Mr. Latham.
But serious science fiction writers such as Robert Heinlein and
H.G. Wells began writing about the dangers of atomic power gone awry
even before the bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
"After the war," notes Latham, "the fears about nuclear fallout
Pop culture treatment of nuclear fallout fears have gone through
several stages since World War II, says Kathy Newman, associate
professor of English at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. In
the 1950s and early '60s, she points out, the depictions were
largely fantastical, horror- and B-movie subjects, with whole cities
being destroyed and populations dying terrible deaths. …