Tribal Nations Fight Challenges to Their Sovereignty Senate Hearings Next Week Will Explore Sensitive Subject of How Different Federal Laws Help or Hurt Indian Tribes

Article excerpt

Ever since the first settlers pushed west and began populating the broad expanses of North America, what constitutes "Indian country" has been the cause of fierce legal struggles and sometimes warfare.

In the end, native Americans lost much of their territory in return for sovereignty on what tribal land remained - spelled out in hundreds of treaties, just as if they had been other countries.

Today, with the Indian population in the United States rising faster than the general population, and with many tribes finding new ways to improve their economic status and political clout, tribal sovereignty again is being debated. Should tribes be able to sell such products as tobacco and gasoline without having to collect state taxes? Should they be immune from lawsuits brought in state and federal courts by nonnatives who believe they've been injured or damaged by tribal entities? "Indian tribes {should} be subjected to the same responsibility that others are," asserts Sen. Slade Gorton (R) of Washington, whose proposed legislation would change federal tax and liability laws as they relate to tribes. Rep. Ernest Istook (R) of Oklahoma says such a measure could save states more than $1 billion in lost revenues annually - $100 million in New York, $105 million in Michigan, and $27 million in Oklahoma, for example. But Indian leaders say such changes would undermine a relationship with the US government won after years of mistreatment. Senator Gorton's proposal would "render Indian tribes impotent to protect their lands, resources, cultures, and future generations," W. Ron Allen, chairman of the Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe in Washington and president of the National Congress of American Indians, told a recent Senate hearing. If enacted into law, the measure would "extinguish hundreds of years of federal Indian policy that protects tribal self-government," he warned. Responding to those who say that tribes are given special treatment, syndicated columnist Tim Giago argues that "American Indian nations gave up millions of acres of land for perpetual funds to educate their children, for health care and other rights, and for the right to run their own governments." Mr. Giago is a Lakota Sioux who edits and publishes the national weekly newspaper "Indian Country Today" from Rapid City, S.D. There is no doubt that tribal economies are improving in many places. From fish hatcheries and logging operations in Alaska to cigarette manufacturing plants in Nebraska to casinos in Connecticut, tribes are finding ways to succeed in the marketplace. High-tech business And it's not just on reservations. If the Coeur d'Alene tribe in Idaho gets its way in expanding tribal-sponsored gambling onto the Internet, and if the ads for mail-order tax-free cigarettes now being promoted by computer become widespread, all of cyberspace could become part of "Indian Country." Such activities should come under greater scrutiny, and states and individuals should not be limited to tribal courts in seeking redress, says Senator Gorton. But others warn that tampering with tribal sovereignty could be harmful to native Americans. …


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