A Most Non-Russian Republic Tends to Its Buddhist Roots Kalmykia Rebuilds Its Post-Soviet Cultural Identity with Help from Buddhists in India, Tibet, and the US

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Only the Soviet-style heavy glass chandeliers give away that this isn't Asia. The red Buddhist temple rises from the steppes with hints of Mongolia. Monks pad barefoot in maroon robes, chanting and fanning themselves with peacock feathers. Portraits of Buddha and the Dalai Lama adorn the temple walls. Listen carefully and you'll hear Sanskrit, an Indian language dating back to the 4th century BC, being spoken. But although the features and language of the worshipers could lead you to believe you were in China or Tibet, this is Russia. Welcome to Kalmykia, Europe's largest and only traditional Buddhist center. Deep inside Russia on the north of the Caspian Sea, it is a tiny republic settled by nomads who thundered westward on horseback from Xinjiang (now China) in the 17th century. Somehow this ethnic minority has managed to preserve its ways, despite determined Soviet efforts to stamp it out. After the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, Kalmykia's 100 Buddhist temples were destroyed. The Russian language was forced upon its schoolchildren. Sent to Siberia by Stalin Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, who was suspicious of all non-Russian minorities, viewed the Kalmyks as traitors after their three-year occupation by Germany during World War II. In 1943 the Kalmyks joined the ranks of ethnic groups summarily deported into inhospitable exile. The entire Kalmyk population of about 150,000 was packed off to Siberia, where tens of thousands died from hunger and cold. They lived there as official "enemies of the people," prohibited from practicing their religion or speaking Kalmyk. When the Kalmyks were finally allowed to return to their homeland in 1957, only 70,000 survivors were left. Since then the population has climbed back to 160,000 people, who have been steadily reclaiming their cultural identity. Republic President Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, elected two years after the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, is aggressively promoting the culture that his parents had to embrace in secrecy. When Mr. Ilyumzhinov came to power in 1993, there were no Buddhist temples. Many younger residents did not know how to speak Kalmyk. The language is now taught alongside Russian in schools and an estimated 70 percent of the population speak it. …

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