Newspaper article The Christian Science Monitor

In Jupiter Discovery, Clues to Solve a Planetary Puzzle

Newspaper article The Christian Science Monitor

In Jupiter Discovery, Clues to Solve a Planetary Puzzle

Article excerpt

New information gathered from a probe that plunged into Jupiter four years ago is raising fundamental questions about how planets form.

The data suggest that Jupiter's building blocks came from a far colder place than the planet inhabits today - a discovery that challenges current models of our solar system's creation.

Researchers can't yet explain how this occurred. But one tantalizing theory laid out in yesterday's issue of Nature could shed light on a vexing mystery of planetary science: why Jupiter- like gas giants in other solar systems orbit close to their parent stars - a place once considered far too hot for such planets to form.

This discovery "will affect the theory of formation of giant planets severely," says planetologist Sushil Atreya, who contributed to the Nature article with six colleagues.

According to current theory, Jupiter was built up with material left over from the sun's formation and small icy bodies called planetesimals. Yet the probe found that Jupiter has two to three times more argon, krypton, xenon, and nitrogen than such solar junk could supply.

If planetesimals formed between the orbits of Uranus and Neptune - as scientists have believed - they couldn't have had much of those gases either. Only if they formed in a colder place, farther from the sun, could microplanets capture the gases in the icy form needed to build a giant planet.

But if the planetesimals then migrated to Jupiter's present orbit, they would have had to be very cold indeed. Otherwise, the increasing warmth would have dispersed their frozen gases before they built up Jupiter. Once inside the planet, gravity would then confine the gases.

Dr. Atreya, director of planetary science at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, says it's tempting to think Jupiter itself was born far from the sun and then migrated inward.

If scientists can show Jupiter probably made such a journey, it would be reasonable to think alien planets also formed in cold parts of their star systems and have moved inward. …

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