When a missile hurtling through outer space was intercepted and
destroyed over the Pacific on Saturday night, the successful test
may have moved the United States a step closer to building a system
to defend all 50 states against limited missile attacks.
In all likelihood, the GOP-run Congress will now use the test to
pressure President Clinton to approve the deployment of a national
missile defense (NMD) system, a decision he will make next summer.
Advocates say such a system is needed to protect the United
States from an errant launch by Russia or China, or from a chemical,
biological, or nuclear strike by "rogue" nations like Iran or North
Korea, which are developing long-range missiles.
But critics say the threat is exaggerated, and they worry that
this latest demonstration of America's technological prowess may
deal a setback to global nuclear-disarmament efforts. Relations with
China and Russia could sour, these experts warn, as those two
nations fret that the US system may neutralize their strategic
deterrents. As a result, Russia may reverse cuts in its huge nuclear
force, and China may decide to enlarge its arsenal.
"What the world looks like 10 years from now is hard to say, but
it would probably be a world that's got more nuclear weapons than it
has now," warns John Pike, an expert with the Federation of American
Scientists, a Washington-based arms-control organization.
In Saturday's $100 million test, a modified Minuteman missile,
fired from California just after 10 p.m., was destroyed 140 miles
above the earth by an interceptor known as the exoatmospheric kill
vehicle, or EKV. The EKV was launched 4,300 miles away in the
Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean. Fired 20 minutes apart, the
projectiles were traveling about 8,000 miles an hour when they
Moreover, the EKV was able to differentiate between the real
target and two decoys, the kinds of countermeasures Iran and North
Korea may be developing.
The 121-pound EKV contains no explosives. Instead, it destroys
its target by ramming it at such a high speed that both
disintegrate. Built by the Raytheon Corp., the device is lofted atop
a missile, locks onto the heat emitted by its target, and is then
steered into it by small rockets.
The test was a boost for the Ballistic Missile Defense
Organization (BMDO), the Pentagon agency overseeing development of a
limited missile-defense system and theater missile defenses (TMD) -
systems intended to shield ground, naval, or air forces from missile
attacks. The US has spent some $50 billion on the programs in the 20
years since President Reagan proposed a Strategic Defense Initiative
to develop a shield against all-out nuclear attack. That vastly
bigger effort has since been abandoned.
Proponents say the US needs both TMD and NMD systems, given the
post-cold-war proliferation of long- and short-range missiles, and
of the know-how to make nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. …