Defense Priority No. 1: Military Readiness ; Pentagon Faces Hard Spending Choices. Will It Be Pricey Weapons or GI Boots?

Article excerpt

The budget President Bush sent to Congress this week has very little detail on defense spending. The true military expense list will come a few months from now after the administration has figured out how many wars it wants to be prepared to fight and how to fight them.

But the one sure thing is that Bush & Co. believe strongly - as do many outside experts - that military readiness needs improvement.

Gear is wearing out. Pilots aren't getting enough flying time. It's getting harder to recruit new soldiers due to low pay, inadequate housing, and other "quality of life" issues. Overseas units are so involved with "peacekeeping" that some are failing to meet actual war-fighting standards because they miss training exercises back in the states.

"Readiness is in jeopardy - both now and in the future - because of aging, overused equipment, rapidly increasing costs and shortages of spare parts, and operational funding," warns Senator John Warner (R) of Virginia, Armed Services Committee chairman.

Meanwhile, the post-cold-war military cutbacks enacted over the past decade (by Republicans as well as Democrats) are putting an added strain on the armed services. Army divisions are down to 10 from 18. Air Force fighter wings have been cut from 36 to 20. And the Navy's fleet, which once stood at nearly 600 ships, is down to little more than half that. In all, there are 700,000 fewer active- duty soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines in uniform.

At the same time, US military planning continues to be based on the ability to fight two "major theater wars." And all of this is happening at a time when new threats and contingencies need to be planned for in a single-superpower world where military readiness could be more important than ever.

"Cold war readiness standards no longer suffice as measures of our capability to meet today's operational requirements," says Army Chief of Staff Erik Shinseki. "Our soldiers believe that the Army is too small for the missions it's asked to perform and under- resourced for the operational tempo it executes."

Pressure from all sides

Bush is under pressure from left and right. Hawks are pushing for a bigger defense budget. Doves say closing more superfluous military bases and killing extravagant and redundant big-ticket weapons could free up money for spare parts and training. Other experts say overseas commitments could be adjusted to assure a more- prepared and better-equipped fighting force.

What's a commander in chief to do - especially one who, during the recent presidential campaign, promised the troops that "help is on the way?"

For starters, Bush's $311 billion Defense Department budget for fiscal year 2002 includes a $1. …


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