Enron Corp.'s failure has smudged the public image of capitalism.
It has left Wall Street "with a couple of black eyes," says
William Freund, a former chief economist for the New York Stock
Critics talk of "crony capitalism." Corporate executives are
being seen more often as rascals, not the touted heroes of the 1990s
Observers suspect that the deregulation movement of recent
decades could be replaced by a re-regulation era. Washington might
move back partway toward the strong business and financial
regulation that Franklin Delano Roosevelt won in reaction to the
Great Depression and the business scandals of the early 1930s. At
the least, deregulation may experience a lengthy pause.
The Amercan corporate system has usually been ranked as having
transparent and honest accounting. It was believed to suffer from
relatively little inside dealing when compared to many other rich
nations. Many shareholders now wonder if those standards were
weakened in the go-go 1990s.
Enron is even raising old questions about the fairness of the
free-enterprise system. Its high rewards for top executives and
losses for the rank and file raised eyebrows.
Conservatives, perhaps even more than liberals, are troubled by
the Enron scandal. Some see Enron as an enemy of capitalism,
damaging the free market.
"Being pro-business does not include condoning ... abuses which,
if left unattended, would bring down the very free-market capitalist
system that we cherish," notes Lawrence Kudlow, a Wall Street
economic consultant. He credits this system, the rule of law, and
"presumably" inhabitants of strong moral character with enabling the
US to be "the most prosperous nation on the planet."
Many liberals would welcome better controls over business.
"It will be good in the long run, but messy along the way," says
Alan Blinder, a former Federal Reserve governor and now an economist
at Princeton University in New Jersey.
"It is going to lead to all sorts of new regulation - and
properly so," predicts Alfred Kahn, an economics professor at
Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., who helped deregulate the
trucking and airline industries years ago.
The 1930s reforms included creation of the Securities and
Exchange Commission and the passage by Congress of the Public
Utility Holding Company Act.
The newborn SEC required regular reporting of corporate news,
including annual reports, and audited earnings statements. The
utility act prohibited the pyramiding of holding companies to
obscure business realities, much like Enron's multiple off-the-
Such reforms "may have saved American capitalism," says Richard
Hirsh, a historian at Virginia Tech, in Blacksburg, Va. They
established a fairer and more level playing field, giving investors
confidence in the firms in which they put money.
Jerry Taylor, director of natural resource studies at the Cato
Institute in Washington, charges Enron with being "a pro" at
"regulatory opportunism. …