The intention of the flier received by the student-body president
of the Elisabeth Gymnasium in the western German city of Mannheim
last year was clear: "Stop the filling of our schools with
foreigners," it urged. "Stop foreigner violence in our schools. The
boat is full."
Other letters - disseminated, it was later discovered, by an
organization related to the right-wing National Democratic Party of
Germany (NPD) - were also received by high schools in the nearby
town of Ludwigshafen, which called on students to help halt
The letters also urged students to support "the freedom of
opinion for all political groups and standpoints," a reference to
ongoing efforts in Germany to ban radical right-wing groups.
While the recipients of the letters in Mannheim and Ludwigshafen
promptly alerted the authorities, such open propaganda efforts
signal a recent change in Germany's radical right-wing landscape.
Throughout most of the 1990s, right-wing youth groups and neo-
Nazi gangs tended to be concentrated in Germany's lower-level high
schools, known as Realschulen and Hauptschulen. They are now,
according to observers of the scene, attempting to make headway in
the university-track Gymnasiums and recently, especially in the
states of former East Germany and in Berlin, they have been
experiencing some success.
"It is a problem that is present in almost every school in
Berlin," says Bianca Klose, head of the Mobile Consultation Program
for the Center of Democratic Culture, a program that helps educate
teachers and students alike about Germany's right-wing scene.
"People say that it isn't as bad as it was three or four years ago.
I disagree. I say the right extremists have just learned not to be
so obvious. I would say the problem is growing."
Beyond school grounds
While there are no statistics that focus exclusively on right-
wing extremism within Germany's schools, the problem in German
society at large is on the rise.
According to recently released statistics, more than 10,500 right-
wing crimes were committed in 2002, up 5 percent from the previous
year. And while the overwhelming majority of the crimes involved
defacing synagogues or disseminating right-wing propaganda, 725 of
the assaults were actually violent, including the brutal murder in
the summer of 2002 of a 16-year-old German boy in the eastern town
of Potzlow whose attackers mistakenly thought he was Jewish.
Within schools and youth groups, however, right-wing extremism is
no longer represented by overtly violent, skinhead youths wearing
Springer brand boots, bomber jackets, and pit-bull T-shirts. Rather,
it is becoming subtler.
"Right-wing extremists have recognized that the open wearing of
symbols attracts unwanted attention and are even, on occasion,
illegal," Ms. Klose says. "Just a very well-cared for appearance and
submission to a teacher's authority are a sign of rightist thinking.
In fact, right-wing extremists are often teachers' favorite
For Matthias Adrian, this comes as no surprise. Until two years
ago, Mr. Adrian, who's now in his late 20s, was an active member of
the NPD and in charge of youth development for Hessen, a state in
southwestern Germany. As a party member, he taught young NPD members
to become involved in classroom discussions so that they might
provide a counter to more tolerant voices.
He says the NPD also uses students who are already right-
oriented to try to attract others into the group.
"When I was with the party," says Adrian, who now works with
EXIT, a program that helps neo-Nazis leave the right-wing scene, "I
used to encourage young extremists to attain the position of class
speaker or to get involved in the student government. …