The 1990s was a crossroads decade for single-sex education.
Female cadets marched their way into two previously all-male public
colleges - the Virginia Military Institute and the Citadel in South
Carolina. At the same time, urban school districts from Detroit to
New York tried to provide the option of a single-sex environment.
Rosemary Salomone didn't know she was soon to become an expert on
the subject. The professor at St. John's University School of Law in
New York was called upon for legal advice by the founder of the
Young Women's Leadership School in Harlem. The public school, which
emphasizes math and science, opened in 1996 with 50 seventh-grade
girls. Surviving the threat of lawsuits, it gradually expanded
through 12th grade and inspired the founding of an all-girls charter
school in Chicago.
Dr. Salomone's research took her far beyond Harlem - through
Supreme Court cases, ideological debates, and the intricacies of
Title IX, the law that bans sex discrimination in federally funded
education. It took her to high schools in Philadelphia and Baltimore
that had retained their long-standing all-girl status as the country
In her new book, "Same, Different, Equal: Rethinking Single-Sex
Education" (Yale University Press), she argues that there is a place
for single-sex education in the public realm. In 2002, Congress
agreed, adding a provision to the No Child Left Behind law
permitting single-sex programs. Clearer guidance on what districts
need to do to make sure such programs comply with Title IX is due
As she awaited the guidelines, Salomone spoke with the Monitor
over the phone from her home in Rye, N.Y. Excerpts follow.
How did your experience in a single-sex school influence your
Every teacher was a woman - many of them were nuns. There wasn't
the traditional gender polarization that often happens in coed
schools. Any girl could be president of the student government or
editor in chief of the newspaper. We had a winning basketball team.
And you went to school not worried about how you looked. It gave you
the sense of limitless possibilities.
When I was visiting the all-girls schools, girls would say: "Yes,
we believe that the single-sex aspect of this school is what's
important. We're not distracted by boys. We can focus on the
academics. We're all like family here; we feel like sisters."
What underlay the opposition to single-sex schools in the 1990s?
There [was] misunderstanding about single-sex schools, a lot of
it being a holdover of the finishing-school [image].
Some of the negative feelings were coming from the historical
exclusion of women from all-male schools. But with [the students at]
these schools [I visited], it was a matter of trying to give them
the skills and attitudes and knowledge [that would] lift them up -
not just academically, but socially.
I found a very clear division within the ranks of women who would
consider themselves feminists. Very often, women supporting these
schools had attended a single-sex college or high school.
[Opponents] had never stepped into a single-sex school. They seemed
to be stymied in a certain vision of gender equality based purely on
equal treatment and equal access and assimilation, which was very
much a part of the women's movement in the 1970s. …