Storm clouds are brewing over one of the most sensitive aspects
of Iraq's reconstruction, as the Iraqi Governing Council clashes
with the US-led Coalition Provisional Authority over how to put
members of the former regime on trial for the atrocities of which
they are accused.
At the heart of the dispute currently unfolding behind closed
doors, say Iraqi and CPA officials, is the council's insistence on
bringing large numbers of former Baathists before a special war-
crimes tribunal, and on imposing the death penalty.
That risks paralyzing the planned court by burdening it with more
cases than it could handle, and depriving it of support from
European members of the coalition who oppose the death penalty, warn
critics of the council's approach.
"If they do this as broadly as they want to, the whole thing
would collapse," argues one CPA legal adviser. "We want this to be a
special tribunal for special people."
The prospect of a death penalty, meanwhile, though widely popular
among Iraqis, would repel European nations who might otherwise offer
technical and legal assistance to the court, thus giving it wider
international credibility. "The whole European Union would be
strongly against any tribunal that could end in hanging people,"
says a European diplomat here.
Plans for a tribunal have been under discussion for several years
among human rights organizations and opponents of Hussein's regime,
with a view to bringing to justice those responsible for war crimes
and crimes against humanity during chemical assaults on Kurdish
villages, the suppression of Shiite Muslim uprisings, the invasion
of Kuwait, and other incidents.
Since the war ended last May, the US Army has taken control of
eight miles of official dossiers thought to contain evidence that
could be brought before a special tribunal, and secreted them in a
secure location in Baghdad.
Researchers wanting to sift through those files, and to begin
forensic work at some of the 153 reported mass grave sites, however,
have so far been hamstrung by a lack of money to pay for such work,
CPA sources say. They are also waiting for the war-crimes court's
statute, which will set out its jurisdiction, to be finalized by a
committee named by the Governing Council.
The statute is due to be presented for approval by CPA chief Paul
Bremer within the next few weeks. It is expected to cast a wide net,
well beyond the 55 figures on the "most wanted" list that US
authorities published as a deck of cards.
"We cannot say yet exactly how many suspects" will come before
the court, says Judge Dara Noor Alzin, the Governing Council member
who heads the drafting committee. "It could be in the hundreds: the
ones who planned the crimes, the ones who ordered them, and the ones
who carried them out must all be put on trial."
That conflicts with the approach that CPA legal advisers are
advocating. They point out that the Nuremberg tribunal at the end of
World War II tried only 23 cases, and that the Yugoslav war-crimes
tribunal in The Hague has indicted less than 100 people since it was
created eight years ago.
"Let's go for the worst of the worst, with a few symbolic cases
covering the best geographical and temporal spread possible," argues
one CPA official. …