Although World War II was the defining event of the 20th century,
not many younger visitors to Washington's newest monument, to be
dedicated this weekend, can identify the names on the marble, such
as Anzio, Remagen Bridge, or the Battle of the Bulge.
"I'm looking at all these names, and I really couldn't tell you
what they are. But I'm now curious," says University of Maryland
senior Shannon Smith, standing alongside the soaring Atlantic Arch.
On the Pacific side of the monument, Will Hulings, the president
of his eighth-grade class in Weston, Mass., recognizes Iwo Jima
"because of the statue of people with the flag" but draws a blank
other names. He and his classmates are stunned by the wall of 4,000
gold stars, 1 for every 100 Americans killed in the war. "I didn't
realize how many people actually got killed. It's huge," he says.
More than 16 million people served in the US armed forces in
World War II, but barely 1 in 3 showed up in the 2000 Census. That's
why planners say they pushed so hard to complete the World War II
memorial while there were still veterans of that war to appreciate
But the real beneficiaries could be those who aren't part of
what's become known as the "greatest generation" and who know very
little about this war. "When people talk about how dangerous,
difficult, and uncertain our own times are, or claim we have never
been in a more ominous situation, it's because they don't understand
how much we have been through in World War II," says historian David
Recent surveys signal large gaps in what Americans who didn't
fight the war know about it.
Only 2 in 3 graduates from the top 50 US colleges and
universities knew that Italy, Japan and Germany were allies in that
war, according to a 2002 study by the American Council of Trustees
and Alumni and the Roper Organization. Only 37 percent knew that the
Battle of the Bulge, the last great German offensive of the war, was
fought during World War II.
Similar gaps show up among US secondary school students. Only 7
in 10 12th graders could identify Germany and Japan as adversaries
of the US during World War II, according to the National Assessment
of Academic Progress, the most comprehensive national test. (Others
cited Cuba, Vietnam, China, Iran, Korea, or the Soviet Union.) Some
20 percent didn't associate Pearl Harbor with World War II. Only
half put wartime President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the right
Dire days of 1942
Of course, knowledge of the past, whether about VE Day or Valley
Forge, has always been a weak area for Americans, but historians say
that such lapses are dangerous. "If people don't know who we are or
how we got to who we are at what cost or struggle, then they are
going to place much less value on it all," says historian David
McCullough, commenting on these findings.
"Recall what the world was like in the early months of 1942, when
we had no air force, we had recruits drilling with wooden rifles,
half of our fleet had been sunk at Pearl Harbor, England was on her
last legs, Hitler's armies were nearly to Moscow, and there was no
guarantee whatsoever that the Nazi war machine could be stopped.
German subs were sinking our oil tankers off the cost of New Jersey
and Florida within sight of people on the beach, and there was
nothing we could do about it," he says.
"[British Prime Minister Winston] Churchill came over in late
1941 after Pearl Harbor and said, 'We have not journeyed all this
way across the centuries, across the oceans, across the mountains,
across the prairies, because we are made of sugar candy. …