Newspaper article The Christian Science Monitor

A Black Man's Unpaved Road to S. Africa's Middle Class

Newspaper article The Christian Science Monitor

A Black Man's Unpaved Road to S. Africa's Middle Class

Article excerpt

Back in the old South Africa, during the dark days of Nelson Mandela's imprisonment, a gregarious black man named William Khazamula Ngobeni was in his own kind of prison.

After working for 17 years as a bank messenger, he earned just $55 a month. One day in 1989, his white boss exploded in rage. "You think because you've worked here for so long you amount to something," he yelled. "Well, you don't, and you never will." With that, he kicked his employee. Mr. Ngobeni decided not to go back the next day. There was no severance, no pension, no recourse.

But this is the new South Africa. Mr. Mandela's African National Congress won nearly 70 percent of the vote in elections last week. And Ngobeni - "Willy" to his friends - now owns a growing business that shuttles tourists around the country. He marvels at the new opportunities. "We grew up knowing we could only work for a white man," he says. "Owning a business was not for a black man." Until now.

As the nation celebrates its first decade of democracy next week, his rise from expend- dable messenger boy to budding entrepreneur is emblematic of the millions of blacks who've scrambled into the middle class. But 22 million of the country's 44 million citizens still live below the official poverty line, highlighting how South Africa's struggle is now an economic one - against the oppression of poverty.

"We've come this far," Ngobeni says, spreading his thumb and forefinger an inch apart. "We have this far to go," he says, raising his arm above his head.

He - and many others - have made big steps toward economic freedom. This is a man who began life in a grass-roofed hut with his parents and six siblings in rural South Africa. Every night, as the sun went down, they didn't know whether they'd eat dinner.

These days, Ngobeni sports a faux Rolex and an ever-ringing cellphone. Striped polo shirts cover his prosperous belly. On a tour of his suburban house, he shows off the addition to the kitchen and living room he's been building. And he has a favorite keepsake: a tattered plane ticket to London, which made him the first in his family to travel abroad.

No deed, no minivan

Many blacks have seen similar success. Between 1990 and 2000, per capita income among blacks rose 28 percent, according to Carel van Aardt, a researcher at the University of South Africa. For whites, it rose just 2 percent. Between 1996 and 2001, the number of black technicians and junior professionals jumped 180 percent, according to census data. The ranks of black legislators, senior officials, and managers swelled 44 percent.

Even for those who've made it, it hasn't been easy. In 1996, Ngobeni was just a Johannesburg taxi driver with a dream. His family was living in a two-bedroom apartment on the edge of the city's worst neighborhood. …

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