Since its transition to democracy more than 25 years ago, Spain's
wall between church and state has been a bit porous. Despite
ratifying a constitution in 1979 that prohibited a state religion,
the country's dominant Roman Catholic church has continued to enjoy
preferential treatment from the government.
But now, Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero's Socialist government is
working to shore up the barrier between church and state.
Last week, his administration announced plans for a "road map"
that would treat all religions equally under the law, remove
religious symbols from public spaces, and end compulsory religious
instruction in public schools.
Most controversially, it would divest the Catholic Church of the
economic and social privileges it has enjoyed for centuries. Some
say the Socialists are trying to strip Spain of its special
heritage. Others see evidence of a natural evolution towards full
democracy in a secular state.
In a country whose constitution guarantees freedom of religious
expression and forbids official sponsorship of any particular faith,
such a change might seem unremarkable.
But Spain's constitutional history is unusual, fraught with
compromises that made democracy here take a form different from the
one promoted by Thomas Jefferson.
Instead of divorcing church and state, the authors of the Spanish
constitution opted for a handshake between the two institutions.
After all, the last - and only other - attempt to radically alter
church-state relations was a leading cause of the country's 1936
Less than a week after the constitution was put into effect in
1979, for example, the Spanish state signed a set of agreements with
the Holy See that in effect continued the Catholic Church's
privileged legal and economic status.
Victorino Mayoral, a socialist member of congress and president
of the Cives Foundation, an organization dedicated to establishing a
lay government, says those accords were signed "to resolve political
problems" and ensure stability.
Indeed, though signed after the constitution, the accords had
actually been negotiated and agreed upon well before. The result was
two sets of rules governing state-church relations. Spain thus
became, notes Mr. Mayoral, "a secular society, on the one hand, but
remained a Catholic state, on the other."
Last Friday, first Vice President Maria Teresa Fernandez de la
Vega made clear that the government intended to further establish
Spain as a genuinely secular state.
That effort is renewing debate about Spanish national identity -
and the role of church funding. Last year, the church received about
3.5 billion euros ($4.3 billion) of state money to support its
ecclesiastical, educational, social, and cultural endeavors.
Supporters of the Socialist proposal, like Pedro Cruz Villalon, a
professor of constitutional law at Madrid's Autonomous University,
call the subsidies "unjustified. …