Images of Islam have pervaded the news media in recent years, but
one aspect of the faith has gotten little attention - Islamic
spirituality. Yet thousands in America and millions in the Muslim
world have embarked on the spiritual path called Sufism, or the Sufi
way. Some see its appeal as the most promising hope for countering
the rise of extremism in Islam.
In recent weeks, celebrations in cities on several continents
have marked the "International Year of Rumi." Sept. 30 was the 800th
anniversary of the birth of Muslim mystic Jelaluddin Rumi, who is a
towering figure in Sufi literature and, paradoxically, the
bestselling poet in the United States over the past decade.
In the West, Sufism has appealed to seekers attracted by its
disciplined spiritual practices as well as its respect for all
faiths and emphasis on universal love.
"I was searching, and the writings struck me - particularly the
poetry," says Llew Smith, a TV producer in Boston who has joined a
Sufi order. "It's direct and consistent about turning you away from
the self, but also being connected deeply to the Divine and to other
Across the Muslim world, Sufism has been an influential force
throughout Islamic history, though it has frequently come under
attack by more orthodox Muslims. Some consider it an Islamic heresy
because Sufis go beyond the faith's basic tenets and pursue a direct
union with God.
Many Muslims today, however, see the spiritual tradition as the
potential answer to the extremism that has hijacked the faith and
misrepresented it to the world.
"In the Islamic world, Sufism is the most powerful antidote to
the religious radicalism called fundamentalism as well as the most
important source for responding to the challenges posed by
modernism," says Seyyed Hossein Nasr, professor of Islamic studies
at George Washington University in Washington, D.C.
Dr. Nasr has written a new book, "The Garden of Truth," to
present Sufi teaching in contemporary language.
"Its influence is immense," Nasr adds. "Sufism has kept alive the
inner quality of ethics and spiritual virtues, rather than a rigid
morality ... and it provides access to knowledge of the divine
reality," which affects all other aspects of one's life.
But Sufi practice faces intense pressures in Islam's internal
struggle. "What the Western world is not seeing," says Akbar Ahmed,
a renowned Pakistani anthropologist who teaches at American
University in Washington, "is that there are three distinct models
in play in the Muslim world: modernism, which reflects
globalization, materialism, and a consumer society; the literalists,
who are reacting, sometimes violently, against the West and
globalization; and the Sufis, who reject the search for power and
wealth" in favor of a more spiritual path.
Feeling under siege, the average Muslim today is in turmoil, Dr.
Ahmed says. To which of these answers will he or she turn? He
believes that the spiritual hunger is deep and resonates widely.
Puritanical reformers revile it
While Sufism has been persecuted in Saudi Arabia, it is thriving
in such places as Iran, Pakistan, and India outside the modernist
cities, says Ahmed, who traveled throughout the Muslim world in
2006. During a visit to the Sufi shrine at Ajmer, India, he
encountered a throng of thousands worshiping there.
"Just last week, when former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif returned
to Pakistan, where did he go? To the Sufi shrine in Lahore," he
But can Sufism influence or counter the political rise of the
radicals? Puritanical reformers call Sufis heretics. And modernizers
have often denigrated them. …