A handful of veteran Turners reminisced last week about their
organization's influence on the Olympics here in 1904 and on
physical education in St. Louis public schools.
The occasion was a gathering at the Concordia Turner Hall at
6432 Gravois Avenue. Some members of the organization were briefing
Katja Rempelmann, a researcher for the National Turners Archives of
Indiana and Purdue universities. She is touring the country to
interview members of the gymnastics society for a research guide on
the American Turners Movement. St. Louis has traditionally had one
of the largest contingents of Turners in the United States.
The organization of the Olympics at the time of the 1904
World's Fair here was largely accomplished by Turners, says Louis
Kittlaus. He was director of physical education for the St. Louis
Public Schools for more than 25 years before his retirement in the
The Turners date back to about 1811 when Friedrich Ludwig Jahn,
better known as Father Jahn, founded the organization in Germany.
Jahn's idea was to build up German youth physically as a foil
against Napoleon. His motto was the Greek and Roman ideal of "a
sound mind in a sound body."
But many of Jahn's gymnasts used those healthy bodies in the
unsuccessful revolution against the kaiser to form a republic in
1848-49. Many of his followers fled to the United States. They
founded Turnverein, or gymnastic societies, throughout the country,
including St. Louis. The first Turner group here was started about
St. Louis histories indicate the Turners here were more
interested in politics than physical exercise.
If you wanted to be elected to political office here, it was an
advantage to be a member of a Turner society, says Frank Bild, a
lawyer and a former state senator. Bild was an instructor at the
Schiller Turner Hall, 200 Weiss Avenue in south St. Louis County.
Some Turners here claim the Turners were a factor in keeping
Missouri in the Union during the Civil War. They were among Union
sympathizers, along with regular Union troops, who defeated an
attempt by Southern sympathizers to seize the Federal arsenal here
in the battle of Camp Jackson on March 10, 1861.
The Concordia Gymnastic Society was formed in 1875 here. It was
one of about 80 American Turner organizations promoting physical
education in the United States. The Concordia Turners was founded
by members of the Central Turnverein who wanted to have their
meeting place nearer their homes in south St. …