1798: French invasion and brief occupation of Egypt begins a
resurgence of European influence in the region after more than four
centuries of Ottoman rule.
1869: French open the Suez Canal and acquire 99-year concession
1882: British forces invade Egypt to suppress a movement opposed to
the ruling Turkish khedive. Despite formal termination of British
rule in 1922, Britain's control continues until 1936.
1918: Ottoman Empire's military intervention on the side of Germany
in World War I ends in its dissolution. Britain and France carve up
the ex-Ottoman Arab territories in the Fertile Crescent into
1939: Colonial empires of the Western European powers start to
crumble during and after World War II.
Independence given to present-day states of Iraq (1932), Syria
(1946), Jordan (1946), and Lebanon (1943).
1947: United Nations resolves to partition Palestine into an Israeli
state and an Arab state. Arab countries reject the plan.
1948: State of Israel is created.
1956: Egypt's President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the Suez
Canal which leads to the Anglo-French invasion of the canal zone. …