Newspaper article The Christian Science Monitor

Despite S. Africa Changes, Namibia Is Not Yet Free

Newspaper article The Christian Science Monitor

Despite S. Africa Changes, Namibia Is Not Yet Free

Article excerpt

NAMIBIA is Africa's newest nation, independent for 15 months. Yet it is still threatened by South Africa's aggressive policies. Namibia's only deep-water harbor, Walvis Bay, remains under illegal South African control, making a sham of Namibian independence.

Walvis Bay was an official part of South West Africa (the colonial name of Namibia) until August 1977, when Pretoria announced that Walvis Bay was no longer part of Namibia. This declaration was illegitimate; Walvis Bay has been rightfully linked with the independence of Namibia and has been the focal point of international discourse.

The United Nations Security Council, in Resolution 432 of 1978, unanimously decreed that Walvis Bay is an integral part of independent Namibia. In 1989, the Namibian people reaffirmed their decision when their representatives unanimously adopted Namibia's first Constitution, which reiterates Namibia's inherent right to Walvis Bay. Yet, Pretoria ardently refuses to comply with world opinion.

In March 1991, Theo-Ben Gurirab, the Namibian foreign minister, met in Cape Town with his South African counterpart, Roelof (Pik) Botha. Although both delegations are to be congratulated for having met at all, the differences between the two were so great that productive diplomacy was impossible. The Namibian delegation reaffirmed Namibia's inherent right to Walvis Bay and its commitment to abide by the UN Resolution 432. The South Africans claimed without justification that Namibian "chiefs" gave South Africa sovereignty over Walvis Bay in the late 1890s.

This diplomatic initiative signaled, however, a new rapprochement between South Africa and the rest of Africa with respect to regional issues. Despite the fact that the meeting ended in a deadlock, both delegations agreed to consult with their respective governments and return to the bargaining table.

Reasonable questions to ask are, whether the Namibian and South African governments will settle for a joint administration when they reconvene, and what this process will mean to the region.

Pretoria has used Walvis Bay in the past for a bargaining chip. In a speech given in 1982, South African President P. W. Botha stated categorically that Walvis Bay would only be returned to a "friendly" Namibian government. Botha's intention was to blackmail a truly independent Namibia with the loss of export earnings. Namibians find the implied threat unacceptable, as does the international community which lobbied tooth and nail for the UN-sponsored independence of Namibia.

P. W. Botha's successor, Frederik de Klerk, still holds onto Walvis Bay, though for slightly different reasons. Afrikaner hard-liners are appalled that South Africa relinquished its illegal occupation of Namibia. To pacify them, President De Klerk retains control of Walvis Bay, making Namibia a hostage of his whims. …

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