Noriega Dentention Poses Legal Riddle

Article excerpt

UNITED States District Judge William Hoeveler has held Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega to be entitled to continuing treatment as a prisoner of war while jailed in the US as a common criminal. The judge is reported to have regarded the situation as "venturing into uncharted legal waters." At the same time, he emphasized the importance of "liberal adherence to the mandates of {the 1949} Geneva {Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War}."

But the waters are not "uncharted." The charts have simply been ignored. The Geneva Convention cited by Judge Hoeveler provides: "Prisoners of war shall be released and repatriated without delay after the cessation of active hostilities" (Article 118). Active hostilities ceased between the US and Panama several years ago.

There is provision for continued detention of "prisoners of war against whom criminal proceedings for an indictable offense are pending" until completion of the punishment. But an "indictable offense" in the sense of the Convention is not what one party says; it is what all the parties to the Convention intended when they negotiated the phrase.

Is it an "indictable offense" in the sense of the Convention if the "offense" is not indictable as criminal in both countries concerned? When the accused acted solely outside the indicting country, his acts predate the hostilities, and the "effects" of his acts in the indicting country were below the threshold international law considers applicable to questions of prescriptive jurisdiction? Was this provision intended to justify going to war to arrest an accused foreign criminal? Was it intended to allow a detaining power to file indictments against whatever prisoners of war it wanted to continue to detain, and thus nullify the effect of the first provision? When North Vietnam threatened to do that with regard to captured American airmen in 1965, the US argued that the phrase applied only to war crimes. …

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