REVOLUTION is under way in the utility industry:
* Executives who once scoffed at conservation's potential are
pushing energy efficiency as a primary solution to America's
growing power needs.
* Deregulation has spurred competition from independent power
* Renewable energy sources will displace much of the oil burned
to make electricity, utility planners say, although the use of coal
and natural gas will not drop.
Two California utilities - Pacific Gas & Electric and the
Sacramento Municipal Utility District - embody the radical shift
away from a "more power is better" attitude. Energy efficiency and
environmental goals are the new focus.
"This industry used to operate on economies of scale - the
larger the capacity, the cheaper it was," says Stephen Metague,
manager of electric resources planning for Pacific Gas & Electric
(PG&E) in San Francisco. "Technology has now pushed us into a
position where that is no longer the case."
More and more, the utility's function will be to carry power
from an outside producer, maintain the quality and availability of
electricity, and provide billing and other retail customer
services, according to industry chief executive officers and
experts. The utility of the future will be more focused on
electricity services rather than strictly on power production.
Utility regulators have prodded utility executives forward by
changing rules so the utilities can profit by helping customers
conserve electricity. Power not used by one consumer is available
for new homes, appliances, or factories to come on line. Big
utilities thereby avoid the need to build new expensive and
financially risky power plants to meet new demand.
Dramatic changes at the customer end of the electric supply grid
are matched by a revolution on the production side of the grid.
"We are on the threshold to go beyond both nuclear and fossil
fuels," says S. David Freeman, general manager of the Sacramento
Municipal Utility District (SMUD). "Don't sell your utility stock
yet," he says. But "the days when electric power utilities can sit
back with their monopolies and let the revenues roll in are long
Just as deregulation has remade the airline, telephone, and
trucking industries, utilities got a jolt of competition in 1978.
That was the year Congress passed laws guaranteeing independent
power producers (IPPs) access to the utility grids that deliver
electricity to consumers. Last year's National Energy Policy Act,
signed by President Bush, opened the power market further to IPPs.
Electric companies were concerned about the reliability of
service, rate stability, and quality of power supplied by
independent producers. "It wasn't too long ago that utilities were
very nervous about that, but it's working," Mr. Metague says.
"The central station generator has served its function, and may
disappear in the future," Metague adds. …