DMITRI KINKULHIN is busy preparing for a long-awaited trip to
Jerusalem. But until recently he was not sure that he would be able
to leave Russia.
Since his brother and his family emigrated five years ago, Mr.
Kinkulhin has dreamed of this reunion. But his requests were at
first denied and he was a "refusnik."
One might have assumed that this old-fashioned Soviet bureaucratic
entity, a classic of totalitarian human rights abuses, had
disappeared from the Russian lexicon with the end of communism.
Instead, several thousand people are currently denied passports.
Though the Iron Curtain has folded, they are still trapped inside
Kinkulhin, a radio-electrical engineer, once worked for a satellite
communication company tied to the Soviet defense industry. "But I
was exclusively involved in computer programming and had no access
to military or intelligence data," he explains.
His passport application, however, was turned down on the ground
that he was still the bearer of "state secrets."
"The only secret was the age of my computer," he scoffs and recalls
that "a compassionate lady at the passport office" advised him to
appeal his passport refusal "to a governmental commission I had
never heard of. I eventually found it, appealed, and finally won."
In the 1970s, when the plight of many refusniks became an
international issue, there was neither appeal nor commission.
The refusniks were Jews denied the right to emigrate to Israel
allegedly because they knew "state secrets." They were at the
forefront of the human rights struggle in the Soviet Union. The
Jackson-Vanik amendment made them pawns in US-Soviet relations.
(The 1974 US law linked trade benefits to the former Soviet Union
to an easing of restrictions on the emigration of Soviet Jews.)
"Nowadays, fewer than 300 people are denied the right to emigrate,"
says Leonid Paperno, who heads the Public Council of Refusniks on
Secrecy. "But as many as 8,000 people are simply not allowed to
travel abroad. The figure could be much higher, but many people
don't even bother to apply for a passport, assuming they'll be
turned down," he says. Different passports are issued for internal
use, emigration, or foreign travel.
In 1991, under Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, a new law
allowing freedom of movement for Soviet citizens was enacted. "But
there were many 'buts,' " says Henry Lapin, the executive secretary
of the appeal commission.
Extension of quarantine
A quarantine of five years could be applied to people who had
worked with important state secrets, and a footnote in the law
provided for the extension of the quarantine if the secrets were of
"At that time, despite its limitations, it was quite good. At least
it was a law," Mr. Lapin says.
In 1991, the new sovereign Russia adopted the existing Soviet law.
In 1993, Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin created the
interdepartmental appeal commission, a mechanism welcomed by local
and international human rights monitors. …