LAHORE, Pakistan Pakistans leading arts college has pushed
boundaries before in this conservative nation. But when a series of
paintings depicting Muslim clerics in scenes with strong homosexual
overtones sparked an uproar and threats of violence by Islamic
extremists, it was too much.
Officials at the National College of Arts in the eastern city of
Lahore shut down its academic journal, which published the
paintings, pulled all its issues out of bookstores and dissolved its
editorial board. Still, a court is considering whether the paintings
artist, the journals board and the schools head can be charged with
The colleges decision to cave to Islamist pressure underscores
how space for progressive thought is shrinking in Pakistan as hard-
line interpretations of Islam gain ground. It was also a marked
change for an institution that has long been one of the leading
defenders of liberal views in the country.
Pakistan is an overwhelmingly Muslim nation, and the majority of
its citizens have long been fairly conservative. But what has grown
more pronounced in recent years is the power of religious hard-
liners to enforce their views, often with the threat of violence, on
members of the population who disagree.
The government is caught up in a war against a domestic Taliban
insurgency and often seems powerless to protect its citizens. At
other times it has acquiesced to hard-line demands because of fear,
political gain or a convergence of beliefs.
Now you have gun-toting people out there on the streets, said
Saleema Hashmi, a former head of arts college. You dont know who
will kill you. You know no one is there to protect you.
The uproar was sparked when the colleges Journal of Contemporary
Art and Culture published over the summer pictures of a series of
paintings by artist Muhammad Ali.
Particularly infuriating to conservatives were two works that
they said insulted Islam by mixing images of Muslim clerics with
suggestions of homosexuality, which is deeply taboo in Pakistan.
One titled Call for Prayer shows a cleric and a shirtless young
boy sitting beside each other on a cot. The cleric fingers rosary
beads as he gazes at the boy, who seductively stretches backward
with his hands clasped behind his head.
Mumtaz Mangat, a lawyer who petitioned the courts to impose
blasphemy charges, argued that the image implied the cleric had fun
with the boy before conducting the traditional Muslim call for
A second painting shows the same cleric reclining in front of a
Muslim shrine, holding a book by Brazilian novelist Paulo Coelho in
one hand as he lights a cigarette for a young boy with the other. A
second young boy, who is naked with his legs strategically crossed
to cover his genitals, sits at the clerics feet. The painting has
caused particular uproar because verses from Islams holy book, the
Quran, appear on the shrine.
Aasim Akhtar, an Islamabad-based art critic who wrote an essay
accompanying the paintings in the journal, wrote that Alis mixing of
images was deliberately, violently profane, aimed at challenge
homophobic beliefs that are widespread in Pakistani society.
Ali redefines the divine through a critique of authority and the
hypocrisy of the cleric, wrote Akhtar, an Islamabad-based art critic
who is also listed as a potential defendant in the blasphemy