Newspaper article Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, PA)

A Photo Caption Distorted Filipino History

Newspaper article Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, PA)

A Photo Caption Distorted Filipino History

Article excerpt

As president of the Filipino American Association of Pittsburgh, I wish to comment on the photo caption in the Feb. 7 Local section that referred to the death of Col. Alexander Leroy Hawkins "during the Philippine insurrection of 1899."

For many first-generation Filipino Americans, especially the more recent arrivals, the reference to an insurrection in the Philippines would come as a surprise since Filipino history books refer to that period (and we believe rightfully so) as the Philippine-American War. For almost 30 years prior to the arrival of the American armed forces in the Philippines, Filipinos had been engaged in attempts to be free of Spanish colonial rule. The rebellion against Spanish rule broke into open hostilities in 1896, leading to the declaration of independence on June 12, 1898.

By the time of the arrival of the American naval forces, the Philippines had mostly been liberated from the Spanish colonial forces and Manila was under siege. …

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