Welcome to the new off-white America.
A historic decline in the number of U.S. whites and the fast
growth of Latinos are blurring traditional black-white color lines,
testing the limits of civil rights laws and reshaping political
alliances as "whiteness" begins to lose its numerical dominance.
Long in coming, the demographic shift was most vividly
illustrated in November's re-election of President Barack Obama, the
first black president, despite a historically low percentage of
It's now a potent backdrop to the immigration issue being debated
in Congress that could offer a path to citizenship for 11 million
mostly Hispanic illegal immigrants. Also, the Supreme Court is
deciding cases this term on affirmative action and voting rights
that could redefine race and equality in the U.S.
The latest census data and polling from The Associated Press
highlight the historic change in a nation in which non-Hispanic
whites will lose their majority in the next generation, somewhere
around the year 2043.
Despite being a nation of immigrants, America's tip to a white
minority has never occurred in its 237-year history and will be a
first among the world's major post-industrial societies. Brazil, a
developing nation, has crossed the threshold to "majority-minority"
status; a few cities in France and England are near, if not past
The international experience and recent U.S. events point to an
uncertain future for American race relations.
In Brazil, where multiracialism is celebrated, social mobility
remains among the world's lowest for blacks while wealth is
concentrated among whites at the top. In France, race is not
recorded on government census forms and people share a unified
Gallic identity, yet high levels of racial discrimination persist.
"The American experience has always been a story of color. In the
20th century it was a story of the black-white line. In the 21st
century we are moving into a new off-white moment," said Marcelo
Suarez-Orozco, a global expert on immigration and dean of UCLA's
Graduate School of Education & Information Studies.
"Numerically, the U.S. is being transformed. The question now is
whether our institutions are being transformed," he said.
The shift is being driven by the modern wave of U.S. newcomers
from Latin America and Asia. Their annual inflow of 650,000 people
since 1965, at a rate that's grown in recent years, surpasses the
pace of the last great immigration wave a century ago. That influx,
from 1820 to 1920, brought in Irish, Germans, Italians and Jews from
Europe and made the gateway of Ellis Island, N.Y., an immigrant
landmark, symbolizing freedom, liberty and the American dream.
An equal factor is today's aging white population, mostly baby
boomers, whose coming wave of retirements will create a need for
first- and second-generation immigrants to help take their place in
The numbers already demonstrate that being white is fading as a
test of American-ness:
* More U.S. babies are now born to minorities than whites, a
milestone reached last year.
* More than 45 percent of students in kindergarten through 12th
grade are minorities. The Census Bureau projects that in five years
the number of nonwhite children will surpass 50 percent.
* The District of Columbia, Hawaii, California, New Mexico and
Texas have minority populations greater than 50 percent. …