Newspaper article Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, PA)

Has 'Caucasian' Lost Its Meaning?

Newspaper article Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, PA)

Has 'Caucasian' Lost Its Meaning?

Article excerpt

As a racial classification, the term Caucasian has many flaws, dating as it does from a time when the study of race was based on skull measurements and travel diaries. It has long been entirely unmoored from its geographical reference point, the Caucasus region. Its equivalents from that era are obsolete -- nobody refers to Asians as "Mongolian" or blacks as "Negroid."

And yet, there it was in the recent Supreme Court decision on affirmative action. The plaintiff, noted Justice Anthony M. Kennedy in his majority opinion, was Caucasian.

To me, having covered the South for many years, the term seems like one of those polite euphemisms that hides more than it reveals. There is no legal reason to use it. It rarely appears in federal statutes, and the Census Bureau has never put a checkbox by the word Caucasian. (White is an option.)

The use of Caucasian to mean white was popularized in the late 18th century by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, a German anthropologist, who decreed that it encompassed Europeans and the inhabitants of a region reaching from the Obi River in Russia to the Ganges to the Caspian Sea, plus northern Africans. He chose it because the Caucasus was home to "the most beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgians," and because among his collection of 245 human skulls, the Georgian one was his favorite, wrote Nell Irvin Painter, a historian who explored the term's origins in her book "The History of White People."

In 1889, the editors of the original Oxford English Dictionary noted that the term Caucasian had been "practically discarded." But they spoke too soon. Blumenbach's authority had given the word a pseudoscientific sheen that preserved its appeal. Even now, the word gives discussions of race a weird technocratic gravitas, as when the police insist that you step out of your "vehicle" instead of your car.

"If you want to show that you're being dispassionate, then you use the more scientific term 'Caucasian,' " Ms. Painter said.

There is another reason to use it, said Jennifer L. …

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