Newspaper article Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, PA)

Pitt Scientists Trick Body to Grow New Muscle Matrix from Pig's Bladder Helps Heal Injured Tissue

Newspaper article Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pittsburgh, PA)

Pitt Scientists Trick Body to Grow New Muscle Matrix from Pig's Bladder Helps Heal Injured Tissue

Article excerpt

Pittsburgh-based medical scientists have figured out how to grow new muscle in injured patients by using extracellular matrix derived from pig bladder.

Nicholas Clark, a 34-year-old electrical engineer from Youngwood, Westmoreland County, was one of the first to benefit from the experimental procedure, which represents the first time science has shown successful replacement of functional muscle in humans.

Mr. Clark was left with a chronic limp after a 2006 skiing injury involving a spiral fracture of the tibia and fibula in his lower left leg. It also left him without muscle in one of four muscle compartments in that leg, along with additional muscle loss.

After traditional surgery and extensive rehabilitation, he still had trouble with his stride, his balance and pushing off with his left foot, forcing him to use a cane or ankle-foot orthotic device.

But in February 2012, J. Peter Rubin, a UPMC surgeon and director of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine department of plastic surgery, performed the novel muscle-replacement surgery on Mr. Clark.

And it worked.

His leg hasn't returned to full function, Mr. Clark said, but he can walk almost normally with ability to push off with his left foot. He also has better balance on his left leg. He can play table tennis and ride a bicycle, which he had difficulty doing prior to the surgery.

"Knowing what I know, I would never hesitate to have this done," Mr. Clark said. "I know the viability of the surgery. If it's an option for someone, I would recommend they do it."

The team of researchers from the medical school and the McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, jointly operated by Pitt and UPMC, announced success Wednesday in regenerating muscle volume in five patients, including Mr. Clark, all of whom had disabilities from severe muscle-loss injury, including battle wounds.

When a traumatic injury results in the loss of a large volume of muscle, the body usually can't respond sufficiently to replace it. Scar tissue also can impair strength and function.

But Stephen F. Badylak, deputy director of the McGowan Institute, Dr. Rubin and their research team used a quilt of extracellular matrix -- collagen-based scaffolding that remains after all cells are removed from pig bladder tissue -- as framework to generate new muscle.

The matrix, naturally containing growth factors, is surgically placed under tension in the area where muscle was lost. By its nature, the matrix attracts stem cells and other progenitor cells from neighboring muscle, which signal the stem cells to turn into muscle cells. The tension in the matrix also alerts the new cells that they must bear weight and be flexible.

Eventually the matrix degrades as stem cells convert to muscle cells, which proceed to signal development of nerves and blood vessels. …

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