Today in History - July 21
Today in History for July 21:
On this date:
In 1667, the "Treaty of Breda," which restored Acadia to France, was signed in the Netherlands. The treaty provided for France's restoration to England of part of the island of St. Christopher's, West Indies, in exchange for Acadia, captured from the French in 1654 by Britain's New England forces.
In 1704, Gibraltar was attacked by the British under Sir George Rooke.
In 1773, Pope Clement XIV issued the brief, "Dominus ac redemptor noster," officially dissolving the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). This politically-based suppression later left conspicuous gaps in Roman Catholic education and foreign missions.
In 1796, Gov. John Graves Simcoe and his family left York (Toronto) for England; he never returned to Upper Canada.
In 1796, scottish Poet Robert Burns died. He was 37.
In 1797, in the first execution of its type in Canada, American spy David McLane was publicly hanged, beheaded and disembowelled.
In 1816, Paul Reuter, founder of the Reuters news agency, was born in Kassel, Germany. He died Feb. 25, 1899.
In 1831, Leopold I was proclaimed king of the Belgians.
In 1836, riding on wooden tracks near Montreal, Canada's first passenger train travelled about 25 kilometres.
In 1873, Jesse James and his gang staged the first train robbery in the United States. They stole $3,000 from a train in Ohio.
In 1886, the cardinal's hat was conferred upon Elzear Alexandre Taschereau, 66, archbishop of Quebec. He was the first Canadian to be made a cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1899, author Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Ill. Plagued by ill health, he died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound at his home in Idaho on July 2, 1961.
In 1904, the Trans-Siberian railway was completed. It took 13 years to construct the 7,400-km line.
In 1911, communication theorist Marshall McLuhan, who coined the phrase "the medium is the message," was born in Edmonton. He died Dec. 31, 1980.
In 1925, the famous "monkey trial" ended in Dayton, Tenn. John T. Scopes was found guilty and fined $100 for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution. Scopes, who was defended by famed lawyer Clarence Darrow, later had his conviction overturned. The case was portrayed in the film "Inherit the Wind."
In 1944, American forces landed on Guam during the Second World War.
In 1959, the United States launched the first nuclear-powered merchant ship, the "N.S. Savannah."
In 1961, the government-built town of Inuvik, N.W.T., was officially opened. The town, the largest Canadian community north of the Arctic Circle, was constructed to replace the old settlement of Aklavik, which was being threatened by flood and erosion. Located on the Mackenzie River delta, the town's economy is centred on nearby oil and gas exploration.
In 1961, Captain Virgil "Gus" Grissom became the second American to rocket into a sub-orbital pattern around the Earth, flying aboard the "Liberty Bell 7."
In 1963, Giovanni Battista Montini was elected Pope Paul VI.
In 1969, "Apollo 11" astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin blasted off from the moon aboard the ascent stage of the lunar module for docking with the command module.
In 1972, the CRTC approved the creation of a third television network -- Global TV. It was licensed to serve five Ontario cities.
In 1973, Canada ended all ceasefire monitoring activities in Vietnam.
In 1975, a bill creating a federal human rights commission with powers to stop discrimination by businesses under federal jurisdiction was introduced in the Canadian House of Commons. The bill outlawed discrimination by employers on grounds of race, sex, colour, religion, age or marital status.
In 1976, 14-year-old Romanian gymnast Nadia Comaneci won the all-round gold medal in women's gymnastics, obtaining perfect scores on the balance beam and the uneven bars. …