The Conversion Survey 1998 is the third annual review of global disarmament and conversion prepared by the Bonn International Center for Conversion. The first edition, the Conversion Survey 1996, provided an overview of six issue areas of conversion: military expenditures, defense research and development, industrial conversion, demobilization, base closures and surplus weapons, as well as an index of the extent of disarmament, demilitarization, demobilization and conversion (BIC3D) occurring worldwide. While the second edition focused on one of these issue areas, surplus weapons, this book is devoted to an in-depth study of another area, industrial conversion. The overview chapter of this survey again contains an update of the BIC3D Index as well as summaries of events in the other five issue areas.
The book is a collective effort by the staff of BICC. All chapters were reviewed and revised in light of the critical comments provided. Michael Brzoska was in charge of planning and organizing the book. He was also the principal author of the Introduction, the Update, Chapters 2 to 4, and prepared the data for the Appendix including the BIC3D Index. Joseph Di Chiaro contributed Chapter 5 and the section on surplus weapons in the Update. Herbert Wulf wrote Chapter 1 and summarized the major findings of all chapters in Chapter 6. Ksenia Gonchar authored the sections on Russia in Chapters 2 to 5 and the Update. Jörn Brömmelhörster wrote the sections on China in Chapters 2 to 4 and coauthored with Michael Dedek the section on military expenditures for the Update. The section on demobilization and reintegration in the Update was written by Kees Kingma and the section on base closures and redevelopment by Keith Cunningham.
Jason Atkinson contributed the Box on Haiti; Ulrike Lindemann and Ulrich Schirowski provided additional material on Germany for the Update. Petra Opitz wrote the Box on international cooperation in Chapter 3. Ann Markusen of Rutgers University, who spent the first half of 1997 at BICC, participated in planning the book and contributed the section on the United States in Chapter 6.
Klaus Rodenberg, Sabrina Colell and Alexandra Topel of BICC's documentation and library department researched additional background information. Sebastian Esser and Thilo von Hahn helped with data assembly for the Appendix and the Indexes. In one way or the other, almost the entire staff of BICC were involved in the preparation of this book. Thanks are due in particular to Moira Davidson-Seger for her careful editing, as well as to Corinna Hauswedell and Heike Webb for editorial coordination.
The survey could not have been written without the help of background papers prepared specifically for this survey. Some of these have been used extensively in the text, for instance the papers by Jonathan Feldman, Michael Oden and Elisabeth Sköns. The places where background papers have been used in writing chapters have been noted in the appropriate chapters. However, responsibility for use of outside contributions, and any resulting errors, is with the survey's authors. BICC is grateful for the time and effort spent by outside contributors in answering specific questions. A selection of background papers will be available on BICC's internet server.
Moreover, a number of colleagues from around the world supplied information and guidance on particular items. Although not all can be mentioned here, chapter authors would like to specifically thank Peter Batchelor, Jabu Dada, Paul George, Milton Leitenberg, Peter Lock, Penny McKenzie, Cindy Miller, Yitzhak Shichor, Pieter Wezeman, Peter Wilke and Sue Willett. Of course, none of the named is responsible for any errors contained in this book.
BICC gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Ford Foundation towards its work on surplus weapons, the Volkswagen Foundation towards its work on high-tech industries in Russia, and the McArthur Foundation towards its work on military expenditures. The Fritz-Thyssen and Robert Bosch Foundations helped to finance a conference on regional conversion in Bonn in March 1997, during which many issues relevant to the current survey were discussed. Special thanks are due to the Ministry of Higher Education and Research of North Rhine- Westphalia for its continuing support of BICC's research activities.
Bonn, February 1998 Herbert Wulf
BICC Conversion Survey 1998 was prepared by Michael Brzoska, project leader
Authors: Jörn Brömmelhörster, Michael Brzoska, Keith Cunningham , Michael Dedek, Joseph Di Chiaro III, Ksenia Gonchar, Kees Kingma, Herbert Wulf
Editing: Moira Davidson-Seger
Editorial coordination: Corinna Hauswedell, Heike Webb
Design: Hansen Kommunikation, Cologne