book club, the first extension-lecture course (later called off-campus courses), and college degrees through study at home.
Vincent founded the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle to offer carefully prepared correspondence courses to people who could not engage in full-time education. The original concept of Chautauqua was confused by a multitude of commercially motivated "tent Chautauqua" circuits, which had no relationship with the original Chautauqua. In many localities across the country, smaller editions of the summer institute were established and used Vincent's educational and religious programs. The original Chautauqua became known as Mother Chautauqua. In 1888 Vincent became a bishop of the Methodist church and he shared time between the Chautauqua movement and other duties.
Vincent was the author of several books, including The Chautauqua Movement ( 1886), Outline History of Greece ( 1888), The Church School and the Sunday School Normal Guide ( 1889), Outline History of Rome ( 1889), To Old Bethlehem ( 1890), Studies in Young Life ( 1890), The Church at Home ( 1898), The Modern Sunday School ( 1900), and Family Worship for Every Day in the Year ( 1905). He founded the North-West Sunday School Quarterly ( 1865) and Sunday School Teacher ( 1866). He was corresponding secretary of the Sunday School Union and editor of Sunday school publications ( 1868-84).
REFERENCES: A C; DAB; NCAB ( 24:378); TC; WWW ( I); NYT, May 10, 1920, p. 13; Rebecca Richmond, Chautauqua: An American Place ( New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1943).
James R. La Forest
WADDEL, John Newton . B. April 2, 1812, Willington, South Carolina, to Moses (q.v.) and Elizabeth Woodson (Pleasants) Waddel. M. November 27, 1832, to Martha Robertson. M. August 24, 1854, to Mary A. Werden. M. January 31, 1866, to Harriet (Godden) Snedecor. Ch. eight. D. January 9, 1895, Birmingham, Alabama.
John Newton Waddel was graduated from Franklin College (later, University of Georgia) with distinction in 1829 and taught for a time at Willington (South Carolina) Academy, an institution his father founded.
Waddel settled in Jasper County, Mississippi, as a farmer in 1840. He became a licensed minister of the Presbyterian church in 1841 and founded Montrose Academy in 1842, the first institution of higher learning for youth in Mississippi.