As a historian, I wish to thank two evolutionary economists for reading and critiquing an earlier version of this book. Frederic S. Lee read what became the first ten chapters; he then referred my work to Warren J. Samuels, who read that version in its entirety. I am also grateful to my friend Lewis Bateman and his staff at The University of North Carolina Press for shepherding the manuscript through the evaluative process and to the Press's two anonymous readers for their critiques and suggestions for revision. I am indebted to Pamela Upton for guiding me through the complexities of modern electronic editing, to Barbara Kelly for word processing, and to Nancy Malone for copyediting. Thanks are also due the Mercy College interlibrary loan staff for efficiently providing me with books and articles over the years, to the Mercy College Faculty Development Committee for help in defraying expenses, and to the staffs of the Harvard University Archives, the John F. Kennedy Library, the National Archives II, and especially the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library. Permission to cite materials from the Alvin H. Hansen and the Joseph A. Schumpeter Papers was granted courtesy of the Harvard University Archives. Finally, I express my deep appreciation to my wife, Pat, and children, Chuck and Liza, to whom this book is dedicated, for their patience and support over the lengthy course of research and composition.