LANGUAGE. For travellers purposing to explore the remoter parts of Austria a slight acquaintance with German is very desirable; but those who do not deviate from the beaten track will generally find that English or French is spoken at the principal hotels and the usual public resorts. A few remarks on the Polish, Hungarian, and Slavonic languages, which may be useful to travellers in the E. and S. provinces of Austria, are given on pp. 275, 320, and 428.
MONEY. The new Austrian monetary unit is the Crown (Krone) = 100 Heller, in terms of which the railways, custom-houses, bankers, etc., state their charges. But in ordinary business reckonings are still frequently made in the old Florins (Gulden) and Kreuzers (1 florin = 100 kreuzer = 2 crowns; 1 kreuzer = 2 heller). The current silver coins are pieces of 5, 2, 1 crown; in nickel there are 10 and 20 heller pieces, and in bronze 2 and 1 heller pieces. In gold there are pieces of 10 and 20 crowns, besides the gold florin or Gulden (now rare; 4 gold gulden = 10 francs). Large sums are paid in government notes (10 and 20 K.) or bank-notes (50, 100, and 1000 K.). The average rate of exchange for a sovereign (or a German gold piece of 20 marks) is 24 K., and for a Napoleon 19½ K. Those who desire to convert considerable sums into Austrian notes should be careful to employ respectable bankers or money- changers; and they will effect the exchange to better advantage in the principal towns of Austria itself than at Munich or other towns in Germany. Those who travel with large sums should be provided with English circular notes, in preference to bank-notes or gold, as, if lost, their value is recoverable. American travellers may also find the cheques issued by the American Express Co. convenient.
Travellers who propose to visit Servia will find a short, account of the Servian currency under Belgrade at p. 381. The Roumanian currency is similar, francs being called Lei and centimes Bani. — Money in Bosnia, see p. 428; in Montenegro, see p. 313.
It may be stated generally that travelling in Austria, except the large cities and the fashionable health-resorts, is less expensive than in most other parts of Europe. The pedestrian of moderate requirements, and tolerably proficient in the language, may, by avoiding the beaten track as much as possible, succeed in limiting his expenditure to 6-8s. per diem; but the traveller who prefers driving to