|49.||From Vienna to Cracow||276|
|From OŚwięcim to Cracow viâ Skawina , 276. — Salt-mines|
of Wieliczka. From Cracow to Kocmyrzów, 282.
|50.||From Cracow to Lemberg and Czernowitz||282|
|From Lemberg to Ławoczne; to Odessa , 284. — From Czer-|
nowitz to Bucharest, 286.
|51.||From Stanislau to Dzieditz viâ Stryj, Neu-Zagorz, and|
|From Chabówka to Zakopane. From Sucha to Cracow;|
to Siersza-Wodna. From Saybusch to Zsolna, 288.
General Remarks. Galicia, the N.E. province of Austria, slopes down in terraces on the N. side of the Carpathians and contains many marshy plains. Unprotected towards the N. and N.E., it has late springs, short summers, and long and severe winters. It is rich in corn, wood, salt, and petroleum, but poor in industries, which are chiefly in the hands of the Jews (800,000 out of a population of 7 ¼ millions), to whom most of the inns, taverns, and shops belong. The horse-dealers and carriage-owners are always Jews. They differ in their dress and the mode of wearing their hair from the other inhabitants, who despise them but are financially dependent on them. Of the other inhabitants, who are almost exclusively Slavonic, about 3,500,000 are Poles, who dwell chiefly in the W. part of Galicia, and 2,830,000 are Ruthenians, who occupy the E. part; but Polish is the official and the literary language of the whole province. The Ruthenians (Russinians, Russniaks) differ materially from the Poles in language, in religion, and in political views. In culture they are considerably inferior; their churches and houses, especially in the country districts, are miserably poor and squalid.
The Bukowina was severed from Moldavia, that is from Turkey, in 1786, and united with Austria. Unlike Galicia, it is hilly and wooded, and also differs greatly from it ethnographically. The inhabitants (about 730,000) are chiefly Ruthenians, Roumanians, Germans, Poles, and Armenians. The political administration is quite separate from that of Galicia, and the official language is German.
Inns. There are good hotels at Cracow, Lemberg, Przemyśl, Tarnów, and Czernowitz. In the smaller towns and in the country the inns are generally very primitive and dirty, while in the villages as a rule the only house of call is the brandy-shop.
Language. A knowledge of Polish is unnecessary for tourists who limit themselves to a flying visit to Cracow and Lemberg, with perhaps a short excursion into the Polish region of the Hohe Tatra, for German is understood by all the cultured inhabitants, and also by innkeepers, waiters, railway servants, etc. For a stay in parts of Galicia away from the railway, however, at least a superficial knowledge of Polish is of great service. — The consonants are pronounced as follows: c = tz; e before i and ć = ty; cz = tsh (like e in Italian; comp. città); dz and dź = ds; dž = dsh; h, ch, are guttural sounds (like the Spanish j); j = y; ł = Il; ǹ = ny; rz and ż = the French j (comp. jour); s = ss or say; sz = sh; w = v; z = soft s; z before i and ź = tsy. The vowels are pronounced thus: ạ is like the French on; ệ is like the French ain; ó = oo. The accent is placed ou the penultimate syllable.
Among the most useful words for travellers are the following: gospoda, inn; restauracya, restaurant; pokój, room; ŁoSko, bed; ŝwieca, candle; ogieŝ, fire; jadalnia, dining-room; widelec, fork; noζ, knife; szklanka, glass; flaszka, bottle; wodu, water; wino wine; piwo, beer; kawa, coffee; mleko,