The Rise of the Dutch Republic: A History - Vol. 3

By John Lothrop Motley | Go to book overview

CHAPTER II.

Sketch of Philip the Second -- Characteristics of Mary Tudor -- Portrait of Philip -- His council -- Rivalry of Ruy Gomez and Alva -- Character of Ruy Gomez -- Queen Mary of Hungary -- Sketch of Philibert of Savoy -- Truce of Vaucelles -- Secret treaty between the Pope and Henry II. -- Rejoicings in the Netherlands on account of the Peace -- Purposes of Philip -- Re-enactment of the edict of 1550 -- The King's dissimulation -- "Request" to the provinces -- Infraction of the truce in Italy -- Character of Pope Paul IV. -- Intrigues of Cardinal Caraffa -- War against Spain resolved upon by France -- Campaign in Italy -- Amicable Siege of Rome -- Peace with the pontiff -- Hostilities on the Flemish border -- Coligny foiled at Douay -- Sacks Lens -- Philip in England -- Queen Mary engages in the war -- Philip's army assembled at Givet -- Portrait of Count Egmont -- The French army under Coligny and Montmorency -- Siege of St Quentin -- Attempts of the constable to relieve the city -- Battle of St Quentin -- Hesitation and timidity of Philip -- City of St Quentin taken and sacked -- Continued indecision of Philip -- His army disbanded -- Campaign of the Duke of Guise -- Capture of Calais -- Interview between Cardinal de Lorraine and the Bishop of Arras -- Secret combinations for a league between France and Spain against heresy -- Languid movements of Guise -- Foray of De Thermes on the Flemish frontier -- Battle of Gravelines -- Popularity of Egmont -- Enmity of Alva.

PHILIP the Second had received the investiture of Milan and the crown of Naples, previously to his marriage with Mary Tudor.1 The imperial crown he had been obliged, much against his will, to forego. The archduchy of Austria, with the hereditary German dependencies of his father's family, had been transferred by the Emperor to his brother Ferdinand, on the occasion of the marriage of that prince with Anna, only sister of King Louis of Hungary.2 Ten years afterwards, Ferdinand (King of Hungary and Bohemia since the death of Louis, slain in 1526 at the battle of Mohacz) was elected King of the Romans, and steadily refused all the entreaties afterwards made to him in behalf of Philip, to resign his crown and his succession to the Empire in favour of his nephew. With these diminutions, Philip had now received all the dominions of his father. He was King of all the Spanish kingdoms and of both the Sicilies. He was titular King of England, France, and Jerusalem. He was "Absolute Dominator" in Asia, Africa, and America; he was Duke of Milan and of both Burgundies, and Hereditary Sovereign of the seventeen Netherlands.3

Thus the provinces had received a new master. A man of foreign birth and breeding, not speaking a word of their language, nor of any language which the mass of the inhabitants understood, was now placed in supreme authority over them, because he represented, through the females, the "good" Philip of Burgundy, who a century before had possessed himself by inheritance, purchase, force, or fraud, of the sovereignty in most of those provinces. It is necessary to say an introductory word or two concerning the previous history of the man to whose hands the destiny of so many millions was now intrusted.

He was born in May 1527, and was now, therefore, twenty-eight years of age. At the age of sixteen he had been united to his cousin, Maria of Portugal, daughter of John III. and of the Emperor's sister, Donna Catalina. In the following year ( 1544) he became father of the celebrated and ill-starred Don Carlos, and a widower.4 In 1548, he had made his first appearance in the Netherlands. He came thither to receive homage in the various provinces as their future sovereign, and to exchange oaths of mutual fidelity with them all.5 Andrew Doris, with a fleet of fifty ships, had brought him to Genoa, whence he had passed to Milan, where he was received with great rejoicing. At Trent he was met by Duke Maurice of Saxony, who warmly begged his intercession with the Emperor in behalf of the imprisoned Landgrave of Hesse. This

____________________
1
Pont. Heut., xix. Godelaevus, 645.
2
Pont. Heut., viii. 197.
4
Cabrera, i. 8.
5
Meteren, 13. Wagenaer Vaderlandsche Historie (Amst., 1770), iv. 294, sqq.

-70-

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The Rise of the Dutch Republic: A History - Vol. 3
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents ix
  • The Rise of the Dutch Republic 1
  • Part I - Philip the Second in the Netherlands 50
  • Chapter I 50
  • Chapter II 70
  • Chapter III 104
  • Part II - Administration of the Duchess Margaret. 1559-1567 116
  • Chapter I 116
  • Chapter II 137
  • Chapter III 164
  • Chapter IV 191
  • Chapter V 215
  • Chapter VI 242
  • Chapter VII 273
  • Chapter VIII 286
  • Chapter IX 300
  • Chapter X 322
  • Part III - Alva. 1567-1573 335
  • Chapter I 335
  • Chapter II 361
  • Chapter III 393
  • Chapter IV 406
  • Chapter V 424
  • Chapter VI 447
  • Chapter VII 470
  • Chapter VIII 494
  • Chapter IX 518
  • Note 543
  • Part IV - Administration of the Grand Commander 545
  • Chapter I 545
  • Chapter II 566
  • Chapter III 582
  • Chapter IV 608
  • Chapter V 623
  • Part V - Don John of Austria 648
  • Chapter I 648
  • Chapter II 675
  • Chapter III 696
  • Chapter IV 717
  • Chapter V 746
  • Part VI - Alexander of Parma 769
  • Chapter I 769
  • Chapter II 795
  • Chapter III 813
  • Chapter IV 827
  • Chapter V 848
  • Chapter VI 866
  • Chapter VII 887
  • Index 905
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