The Rise of the Dutch Republic: A History - Vol. 3

By John Lothrop Motley | Go to book overview

claimed to embody the whole Council.1 He caused a new seal to be struck -- a proceeding very unreasonably charged as forgery by the provincials -- and forthwith began to thunder forth proclamations and counter-proclamations in the King's name and under the royal seal.2 It is difficult to see any technical crime or mistake in such a course. As a Spaniard, and a representative of his Majesty, he could hardly be expected to take any other view of his duty. At any rate, being called upon to choose between rebellious Netherlanders and mutinous Spaniards, he was not long in making up his mind.

By the beginning of September the mutiny was general. All the Spanish army, from general to pioneer, were united. The most important German troops had taken side with them. Sancho d'Avila held the citadel of Antwerp, vowing vengeance, and holding open communication with the soldiers at Alost.3 The Council of State remonstrated with him for his disloyalty. He replied by referring to his long years of service, and by reproving them for affecting an authority which their imprisonment rendered ridiculous.4 The Spaniards were securely established. The various citadels which had been built by Charles and Philip to curb the country now effectually did their work. With the castles of Antwerp, Valenciennes, Ghent, Utrecht, Culemburg, Viane. Alost, in the hands of six thousand veteran Spaniards, the country seemed chained in every limb. The foreigner's foot was on its neck. Brussels was almost the only considerable town out of Holland and Zealand which was even temporarily safe. The important city of Maestricht was held by a Spanish garrison, while other capital towns and stations were in the power of the Walloon and German mutineers.5 The depredations committed in the villages, the open country, and the cities, were incessant -- the Spaniards treating every Netherlander as their foe. Gentleman and peasant, Protestant and Catholic, priest and layman, all were plundered, maltreated, outraged. The indignation became daily more general and more intense.6 There were frequent skirmishes between the soldiery and promiscuous bands of peasants, citizens, and students: conflicts in which the Spaniards were invariably victorious. What could such half-armed and wholly untrained partisans effect against the bravest and most experienced troops in the whole world? Such results only increased the general exasperation, while they impressed upon the whole people the necessity of some great and general effort throw off the incubus.


CHAPTER V.

Religious and political sympathies and antipathies in the seventeen provinces -- Unanimous hatred for the foreign soldiery -- Use made by the Prince of the mutiny -- His correspondence -- Necessity of Union enforced -- A congress from nearly all the provinces meets at Ghent -- Skirmishes between the foreign troops and partisan bands -- Slaughter at Tisnacq -- Suspicions entertained of the State-Council -- Arrest of the State-Council -- Siege of Ghent citadel -- Assistance sent by Orange -- Maestricht lost and regained -- Wealthy and perilous condition of Antwerp -- Preparations of the mutineers under the secret superintendence of Avila -- Stupidity of Oberstein -- Duplicity of Don Sancho -- - Reinforcements of Walloons under Havré, Egmont, and others, sent to Antwerp -- Governor Champagny's preparations for the expected assault of the mutineers -- Insubordination, incapacity, and negligence of all but him -- Concentration of all the mutineers from different points, in the citadel -- The attack, the panic, the flight, the massacre, the fire, the sack, and other details of the "Spanish Fury" -- Statistics of murder and robbery -- Letter of Orange to the States-general -- Surrender of Ghent citadel -- Conclusion of the "Ghent Pacification" -- The treaty characterised -- Forms of ratification -- Fall of Zierickzee and recovery of Zealand.

____________________
1
Bor, Hoofd, ubi sup.
2
Bor, ix. 712. Hoofd, x. 449.
3
Mendoza, xv. 301, sqq. Cabrera, xi. 864,
4
Mendoza, ubi sup.
5
Bor, ix. 715. Mendoza, xv. 303.
6
Meteren, vi. 107. Hoofd, x. 450-453.

-623-

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The Rise of the Dutch Republic: A History - Vol. 3
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents ix
  • The Rise of the Dutch Republic 1
  • Part I - Philip the Second in the Netherlands 50
  • Chapter I 50
  • Chapter II 70
  • Chapter III 104
  • Part II - Administration of the Duchess Margaret. 1559-1567 116
  • Chapter I 116
  • Chapter II 137
  • Chapter III 164
  • Chapter IV 191
  • Chapter V 215
  • Chapter VI 242
  • Chapter VII 273
  • Chapter VIII 286
  • Chapter IX 300
  • Chapter X 322
  • Part III - Alva. 1567-1573 335
  • Chapter I 335
  • Chapter II 361
  • Chapter III 393
  • Chapter IV 406
  • Chapter V 424
  • Chapter VI 447
  • Chapter VII 470
  • Chapter VIII 494
  • Chapter IX 518
  • Note 543
  • Part IV - Administration of the Grand Commander 545
  • Chapter I 545
  • Chapter II 566
  • Chapter III 582
  • Chapter IV 608
  • Chapter V 623
  • Part V - Don John of Austria 648
  • Chapter I 648
  • Chapter II 675
  • Chapter III 696
  • Chapter IV 717
  • Chapter V 746
  • Part VI - Alexander of Parma 769
  • Chapter I 769
  • Chapter II 795
  • Chapter III 813
  • Chapter IV 827
  • Chapter V 848
  • Chapter VI 866
  • Chapter VII 887
  • Index 905
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