Some people claim they do not believe in an unconscious or the possibility that our actions are sometimes influenced by feelings or impulses that originate outside the conscious mind. There are entire schools of psychological and philosophical thought that utterly reject these notions as useless and outdated.
This view is exemplified by the various "behaviorist" philosophies espoused by John B. Watson, B. E Skinner, 1 and their followers; that is, all behavior is the result of association and conditioning and the reinforcement of certain actions with positive rewards. Someone rewarded for performing a specific action is likely to do it again, and behavior is shaped accordingly. If rewards are withheld or provided immediately following an action, all subsequent behavior can be modified and directed via association or through the pairing of various stimuli (e.g., a bell followed by food) with certain natural responses (e.g., hunger). Even psychotic, criminal, or other types of behavior can be either created or extinguished in this manner. As a form of therapy, this has been referred to as behavior modification.