THE BOOK Durkheim devoted to the problem of suicide is related in various ways to his study of the division of labor. On the whole, Durkheim approves of the phenomenon of the organic division of labor. He sees it as a normal and generally speaking happy development in human societies. He approves of the differentiation of jobs, the variability and differentiation of individuals, the decline in the authority of tradition, the expanding domain of reason, the allowance for individual initiative. However, he also notes that the individual is not necessarily any more satisfied with his lot in modern societies. Durkheim is, incidentally, struck by the increase in the number of suicides as an expression and proof of certain possibly pathological traits in the contemporary organization of communal life.
The last part of the book devoted to the division of labor contains an analysis of these pathological traits. Durkheim is already using the term anomie—absence of norms or disintegration or norms—a concept which is to play a dominant role in his study of suicide. He reviews certain pathological phenomena: economic crisis, nonadjustment of workers to their jobs, the violence of the claims which individuals lodge against the collectivity. Insofar as modern societies are based on differentiation, it becomes indispensable that every man's occupa