Main Currents in Sociological Thought: Durkheim, Pareto, Weber - Vol. 2

By Raymond Aron; Richard Howard et al. | Go to book overview

III
Historical Causality and Sociological Causality:
The Ideal Types

SCIENCE, AS Max Weber conceives it, has universal truth for its objective; but historical or sociological science begins with a procedure that depends upon the personality and situation of the observer, his frame of reference, the way he organizes the material as a result of values previously established or discovered in the material itself. If the objective of universal truth is to be attained, therefore, the subjectively conditioned frame of reference must be followed by procedures of universal validity.

These procedures begin with an attempt to demonstrate propositions of fact or of causal relations. The causal relations are of two types: historical causality, that is, analysis of the influence exerted by the various antecedents of a particular and unique event; and sociological causality, that is, regular connection or consecutiveness between one term and another.

I started to explain the procedure for arriving at historical causality, an essential step of which is the re-creation of what would have happened if one of the antecedents had not occurred or had been other than it was. In other words, I showed why and how construction of the unreal was a necessary method of understanding how events had

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Main Currents in Sociological Thought: Durkheim, Pareto, Weber - Vol. 2
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Preface v
  • Contents ix
  • Introduction i
  • ÉMile Durkheim *
  • I - De la Division Du Travail Social 11
  • II - Le Suicide 24
  • III - Les Formes éLéMentaires de la Vie Religieuse (1) 35
  • IV - Les Formes éLéMentaires de la Vie Religieuse (2) 47
  • V - Las RèGles de la MéThode Sociologique 59
  • VI - Socialism 70
  • VII - Philosophy and Morality 82
  • Vilfredo Pareto *
  • I - Logical and Nonlogical Actions 101
  • II - Residues 116
  • III - Residues and Derivations 128
  • IV - From Analysis to Synthesis 138
  • V - Elites and Cycles of Mutual Dependence 148
  • VI - The Significance of Pareto's Work 160
  • VII - Final Remarks on Pareto 169
  • Max Weber *
  • I - The Conception of Science 179
  • II - Science and Action 188
  • III - Historical Causality and Sociological Causality: the Ideal Types 197
  • IV - Philosophy of Values and Sociology of Religion 205
  • V - The Sociology of Religion: Economy and Society 220
  • VI - Political Sociology 233
  • Conclusion 253
  • Bibliographies 265
  • Index 269
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