The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, 1933-45

By J. S. Conway | Go to book overview

Notes

INTRODUCTION
1
An essay in English by Birger Forell, entitled 'National-Socialism and the Protestant Churches', and another by Robert d'Harcourt, 'National-Socialism and the Catholic Church in Germany', are to be found in The Third Reich (for UNESCO) (London 1955); partial studies are to be found in J. Donohoe, Hitler's Conservative Opponents in Bavaria 1930-45 (Leiden 1961) and G. C. Zahn, German Catholics and Hitler's Wars (New York 1962). In 1964 there appeared Professor Guenter Lewy's brilliant polemic The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany, in which he used material from the diocesan archives to document the readiness of Catholics to collaborate with Nazism both in word and deed, which led to the failure, he believes, of the Catholic Church to take any co-ordinated stand against the spread of Nazi aggressions and atrocities. A more specialized study by S. Friedländer, Pius XII and the Third Reich (English ed. 1966) seeks to show that Pope Pius was reluctant to condemn the German misdeeds because of a predilection for Germany and a desire to avoid any increased persecution of the Catholic Church. On the Protestant side, Professor F. H. Littell, in The German Phoenix (New York 1960) discusses the background of the Church Struggle, the resistance of the Confessing Church, and the lay movements which have taken their rise as part of the post-war renewal. The paperback by E. H. Robertson, Christians Against Hitler (London 1963), is too short and insignificant to be of value to historians of this subject.
2
A. C. Cochrane, The Church's Confession Under Hitler (Philadelphia 1962), p. 16. This is an excellent analysis in English of the Barmen Declaration of 1934, most sympathetically describing the position of the authors.
3
This book was based on the collection of facts and documents, The Persecution of the Catholic Church in the Third Reich (London 1940). This work was actually prepared in Rome, but published in London and later in Buenos Aires. I learn from private sources that the previously unknown author was P. Walter Mariaux, SJ, who died in Munich, 30 April 1963.
4
S. W. Herman, It's Your Souls We Want (London 1943); A. Frey, Cross and Swastika (London 1938); P. Means, Things That Are Caesars's (New York 1935); D. F. Buxton The Religious Crisis in Germany (London 1938); N. Micklem, National Socialism and the Roman Catholic Church (Oxford 1939).

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