While the Federal disaster of First Bull Run served as a
harbinger that the Civil War would not be a brief affair,
Shiloh proved what the true cost of modern war would be.
Forced out of Missouri, Kentucky, and losing Tennessee,
the commander of Confederate forces in the West, Albert
Sidney Johnston, concentrated the troops under his
command to surprise Grant's isolated command at
Pittsburg Landing and Shiloh Church in southwestern
Tennessee on 6 April 1862. Grant's army was able to hold
the Confederates off until reënforcements arrived, and
routed the attackers the next day. At least 13,047 Federals
were lost while the Confederates suffered 10,699 casualties,
a horrific toll by any standards. Among the Southern dead
was one of the most promising Confederate commanders
in the Western Theatre, Albert Sidney Johnston.