AND PROGRAM DESIGN
The structure of an organization can be defined simply as the sum total of the ways in which it divides its labor into distinct tasks and then achieves coordination among them.
It is one thing to understand a need; it is quite another matter to design an intervention that will meet that need. … The purpose of the program design phase is to put together that service or combination of services that appears to have the best possible chance of achieving the program's objectives.
—Kettner, Moroney, and Martin (1999:12)
THE CHARACTERISTICS of the services that individuals, families, and communities receive through human service organizations are directly affected by the way in which the service organization is structured and by the operational design of the service program. This chapter deals with the structure of human service organizations and with the design of service programs within such organizations.
The first section of this chapter uses a framework set forth by Mintzberg in The Structuring of Organizations (1979) and in Power In and Around Organizations (1983) to identify the most common structural characteristics of human service organizations. The second section examines the variety of auspices that exist for human service organizations. Traditionally, the world of human service organizations has been viewed as divided between voluntary nonprofit organizations and governmental bureaus. However, the crossover patterns between nonprofit and governmental organizations that have emerged recently, together with the appearance of for-profit human service organizations, have resulted in an increased diversity of organizational auspices. The third section of this chapter examines variations in governance structures among human service organizations. The fourth section explores the choices in