THE HUMAN SERVICE EXECUTIVE
My only thesis is that in the more progressively managed businesses there is a tendency for the control of a particular situation to go to the man with the largest knowledge of that situation, to him who can grasp and organize its essential elements, who understands its total significance, who can see it through—who can see length as well as breadth—rather than to one with merely a dominating personality or in virtue of his official position.
—Mary Parker Follett (in Graham 1995:175)
All managers have two jobs—handling today's issues and getting ready for the future.
—Rosabeth Moss Kanter (1997:3)
THERE ARE two highly visible and distinctive models of the organizational executive. The most widely recognized model is that of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the for-profit corporate firm. The corporate executive role combines policy making—as a member of the corporate board of directors—and implementation—as the senior manager. Conceptually, this version of the CEO role is applicable in the small, entrepreneurial firm and in the multinational corporate giant. And ultimately, a single yardstick measures the effectiveness of executive performance in the for-profit corporation—financial returns to the owner shareholders.
The second widely recognized executive model is that of the career generalist public administrator—the federal department executive, the state agency administrator, the city manager (Gortner, Mahler, and Nicholson 1987). According to traditional principles of public administration (Wilson 1887), the public administrator is responsible for policy implementation but is not a policy maker. Members of elected legislative bodies and those elected officials who may also be organizational managers, such as the president of the United States, make policy. This public administration role is, conceptually, a more complex version of the ex