Back in 1941, Harry Hopkins declared that the forces of democracy had to exceed the Nazis in "fury and ruthlessness." In the skies above Europe in 1944, these concepts were put into practice by the British and American bomber fleets with increasing candor. "Breaking civilian morale," the phrase that the British air generals had whispered behind their hands to the shocked Americans in 1942, was swiftly becoming official policy. Soon shortened to "morale-bombing," it was a step beyond area‐ bombing, which could be rationalized by arguing that there were war plants and railroad yards within the districts being smashed. Morale-bombing was aimed at German civilians, without apology or subterfuge.
The Americans had already moved in this direction, using a rationalization called "radar bombing." This idea utilized radar