The Skull beneath the Skin: Africa after the Cold War

By Mark Huband | Go to book overview

NOTES

PROLOGUE
1.
At the polls, on 1 June 1993, Melchior Ndadaye won 64.8 percent of votes as leader of the Front pour la démocratie au Burundi (Frodebu: Front for Democracy in Burundi), compared with the 32.4 percent won by Pierre Buyoya, leader of the Union pour le progrès national (Uprona: Union for National Progress), and the 1.4 percent by Pierre-Claver Sendegeya of the Parti de réconciliation du peuple (PRP: Party of Reconciliation of the People).
2.
Frodebu won 65 of the 81 seats, or 71 percent of the votes, compared with Uprona's 16 seats, or 21 percent of the votes, while four other parties failed to gain the minimum 5 percent of the votes necessary to secure a single seat.
3.
In September 1991, Maj. Pierre Buyoya, Burundi's military ruler, who had seized power in 1987, presented a report on "national democratization," which was to lay the basis for Burundi's shift to democratic rule after twenty-six years of single-party rule. On 16 April 1992, a law was passed lifting a ban on political parties.
4.
A. O. Ikelegbe, "Checks On the Abuse of Political Power," in African Traditional Political Thought and Institutions, edited by Zaccheus Sunday Ali, John A.A. Ayoade, and Adigun A.B. Agbaje (Lagos: Centre for Black and African Arts and Civilization, 1989), p. 151.
5.
Ali A. Mazrui and Michael Tidy, Nationalism and New States in Africa (Nairobi: Heinemann Kenya, 1984), p. 187.
6.
Ibid.
7.
Ibid., p. 190.
8.
See Ibid.
9.
Eghosa E. Osaghae, "The Passage from the Past to the Present in African Political Thought: The Question of Relevance," in African Traditional Political Thought and Institutions, edited by Zaccheus Sunday Ali, John A.A. Ayoade, and Adigun A.B. Agbaje (Lagos: Centre for Black and African Arts and Civilization, 1989), p. 68.
10.
A. O. Ikelegbe, op. cit., pp. 148-151.
11.
Olufemi A. Akinola, "The Colonial Heritage and Modern Constitutionalism in Africa," in African Traditional Political Thought and Institutions, edited by Zaccheus Sunday Ali, John A.A. Ayoade, and Adigun A.B. Agbaje (Lagos: Centre for Black and African Arts and Civilization, 1989), p. 270.
12.
Amadu Sesay and Abiodun Alao, "Democracy and Security in Africa: The Changing Nature of a Linkage," in Adebayo Oyebade and Abiodun Alao, Africa After the Cold War: The Changing Perspectives on Security (Trenton, N.J., and Asmara, Eritrea: Africa World Press, 1998), p. 51.
13.
U.S. Government policy statement: "Africa: Guidelines for United States Policy and Operation," 1963, quoted in Edgar Lockwood, "Carter's Sometime Southern Africa Policy," in American Policy in Southern Africa, second edition, edited by René Lemarchand (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1981), p. 470.
14.
For a lucid study of this phenomenon see Liisa H. Malkki, Purity and Exile: Violence, Memory, and National Cosmology Among Hutu refugees in Tanzania (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), chapter 2.

-335-

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The Skull beneath the Skin: Africa after the Cold War
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents v
  • Acknowledgments vii
  • Prologue viii
  • Part One - Empty Promises i
  • 1 - Sell the Silver, Steal the Gold 3
  • 2 - The Skull beneath the Skin 31
  • 3 - Great Game, Dirty Game 57
  • Part Two - The Time of the Soldier 79
  • 4 - Whispers and Screams 81
  • 5 - A City on the Lake 97
  • 6 - Juggling the Juntas 115
  • 7 - The Deadly Harvest 137
  • Part Three - Blood of the Ancestors 159
  • 8 - Myths, Chiefs, and Churches 161
  • 9 - Genocide 184
  • 10 - The Spit of the Toad 217
  • Part Four - New World, Old Order 249
  • 11 - Rogue States and Radicals 253
  • 12 - The Mogadishu Line 277
  • 13 - France, Africa, and a Place Called Fashoda 307
  • Epilogue - The Center Cannot Hold 327
  • Notes 335
  • Bibliography 355
  • Index 361
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