If the two orientations to a school—as an agent of the state or as an agent of the family, to describe the orientations in extreme form—have different consequences for children and youth, then the outcomes of public school and private school should differ. It is not true, of course, that public schools are a pure embodiment of the "agent of the state" orientation, for a small school in a small school district continues to emanate largely from the community it serves and the families that make up that community. Nor is it true that private schools are a pure embodiment of the "agent of the family" orientation, for in many ways they merely emulate the dominant public school practice.
Yet as the evidence in chapter 2 indicated, public schools are, on average, more nearly agents of the state than are private schools. And private schools are more likely to constitute a functional community (for the religious sector) or a value community. As a consequence, outcomes of education should differ between the two sectors. Those differences may vary from time to time, depending on the dominant goals held by parents who send their children to private schools and depending on the dominant goals held for the schools by the larger society. For example, when upper-class parents used private schools primarily to