Achievement and Dropout
in Disadvantaged and
WHAT schools do for children from disadvantaged backgrounds or deficient families is of special importance in designing education for the future. First we must make a distinction between family backgrounds that we will call "disadvantaged," and those that we will call "deficient."
The backgrounds we will term disadvantaged are those marked by low education and low income. These are the resources in the child's background traditionally regarded as important for the educational development of a child. Children of racial and ethnic minorities are also often regarded as "disadvantaged," the minority status serving primarily as an indicator of low education, low income, and the lack of other resources valuable for educational development. The fact that minority ethnic or racial status is merely a correlate of disadvantage and not a direct measure is indicated by the academic success of children from various immigrant groups throughout American history.