America's Unstable Empire ...
The Politics of Aid to
Pakistan and India *
TO establish an empire without engaging large numbers of troops in outright conquest is a formidable task requiring a remarkable ideological superstructure. When the United States emerged from World War II as the only major antagonist undamaged by the war, the consolidation of its power was made possible in part by the distribution of aid to war‐ ravaged European countries in return for their loyalty to Western (i.e., procapitalist) hegemony.
The partition of Europe was accomplished in the space of a few years and the redevelopment of western Europe proceeded in spite of the necessity of maintaining restrictive economic ties with the United States. What the United States needed from these countries was markets for its products and cooperation in the military defense of the parameters of its empire. In the case of the redevelopment of Japan, a similar situation existed. The superstructure of aid was at least for the time being adequate to the situation.
But the United States needed to control regions of the world which could supply raw materials and inexpensive labor for its expanding economy and it needed to secure military outposts in other geographically strategic areas. Its attempt to establish and/or justify control of such areas also by means of economic aid was handicapped by the fact that such aid was not necessarily intended to further the process of indus-____________________