I owe a tremendous debt to numerous individuals who assisted me in making this a much better book. Foremost, let me thank Randall Miller, the series editor. Put simply, all writers should be so lucky to work with an editor as helpful and constructive as Randall. Second, let me thank the editors at Greenwood Press, Barbara Rader, Maureen Melino, Barbara Goodhouse, and Liz Leiba, who helped me with everything from obtaining proper permissions to republish material to catching careless grammatical errors. Third, let me express gratitude to my students at York College, especially to those in my History of the Civil Rights Movement class, who read and commented on drafts of several chapters of this book. Along the same lines, I owe special thanks to Eric Roth, Adam Doutrich, and Cathy Holt, who served as research assistants for me at various stages of my work. My colleagues in the Department of History and Political Science, especially my chairperson Phil Avillo, and my department secretary, Rosemary Wivagg, provided continual support and important distractions. My Dean at York College, Jean Wyld, the Faculty Enhancement Committee, and Research and Publication Committee granted me the funds and the time that made it possible to complete this book and I thank them for both. I have received invaluable assistance from too many librarians, archivists, work study students, and friends to name, but I thank them all nonetheless. Last, let me express my greatest gratitude to my family, my wife, Diane Krejsa, and my two children, Jessica and Brian, for making what I do possible and worthwhile.