Villages Astir: Community Development, Tradition, and Change in Korea

By John E. Turner; Vicki L. Hesli et al. | Go to book overview

NOTES
1
In this description of the Saemaul movement, the authors have benefited from the material presented in A Handbook of Korea ( Seoul: Ministry of Culture and Information, 1982), pp. 597-631; and Saemaul ( Seoul: Republic of Korea, Office of the President, 1975). Other descriptions of the movement include William W. Boyer and Byong Man Ahn, "The New Community Movement ('SaemaulUndong') in South Korea", Journal of Korean Affairs 6, no. 3-4 ( 1976- 1977): 48-62; and In-Joung Whang, Management of Rural Change in Korea ( Seoul: Seoul National University Press, 1981).
2
A Handbook of Korea, 1982: 606. In 1974, the regime established a Saemaul program in the urban areas in an effort to bring the entire population within its embrace. City residents, it was said, had benefited from the improvements in the economy but were lacking in spiritual development. One of the key themes was cooperation, including the fostering of better relations between employers and workers in the factories and friendship among neighbors. The city dwellers were mandated to help maintain order, to assist in keeping the streets clean, to conserve resources, to be charitable to poor people, and to support the development of the Saemaul in the rural areas. The most effective organization of the Saemaul in the urban centers were in the factories and schools. The government encouraged high public officials, business executives, bankers, university professors, police chiefs, and lawyers to participate in the movement and to enroll in the training programs. The influence of the urban wing of the Saemaul was never as great as that of the rural units. ( A Handbook of Korea, 1982: 609-612; Boyer and B. M. Ahn, "The New Community Movement ('Saemaul Undong') in South Korea", pp. 54-55.
3
In-Joung Whang, Hankuk iu Jonhapnongchonkaebai (Integrated Rural Development in Korea ( Seoul: Korea Research Institute of Agricultural Economics, 1980), p. 161; and Kyong-Dong Kim, "The Distinctive Features of South Korea's Development", in Peter L. Berger and Hsin-Huang M. Hsiao (eds.), In Search of an East Asian Development Model ( New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1988), pp. 202-203.
4
Quoted in Whang, Management of Rural Change in Korea, p. 46.
5
Ten Year History of the Saemaul Ŭndong, vol. 2 ( Seoul: Ministry of Home Affairs, 1980), p. 22; reprinted in Whang, Management of Rural Change in Korea, p. 185.
6
In 1981, President Chun's brother, Chun Kyung Hwan, was placed in charge of the Saemaul movement. In 1988, he was charged with corruption, as we have noted. His misbehavior damaged the movement, but since the disclosure came long after the second wave of interviews, it had no effect on this project.

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