zation, allows for choice by the client regarding specific steps to be taken, and leads to commitment on the client's part to those action steps for change.
Burke ( 1992, 147-157) believes that two things must happen when planning change. First, the need for change must be determined. Second, the power and political dynamics of the organization must be addressed. He contends that managing the change effort is essentially transition management and concerns disengaging from the past, communicating with people about change, and involving people in implementation planning. Moreover, he contends that managing the change effort requires organizing a transition management team, using multiple leverages, and providing feedback. Finally, Burke believes that creating symbols and language to help focus the effort and stabilizing change are essential.
The outcomes of performance improvement interventions and change initiatives are ultimately assessed through evaluation. The most common forms of performance evaluation are formative and summative. Formative evaluation provides feedback for process improvement and facilitates choosing among possible modifications. Therefore, it should be used as the basis for constructively modifying HRD efforts in the future, not simply as a basis for keeping them alive or, alternatively, completing the process. On the other hand, summative evaluation assesses overall outcomes of the performance improvement process and leads to a decision to continue or terminate the process.
Regardless of the type of evaluation selected, strategic HRD leaders are responsible for conducting evaluations that determine the impact of their program's interventions and initiatives. Such efforts are known as impact evaluations and are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 17.
At the center of strategic HRD are its leaders, who provide direction, inspiration, and insight for the function. To be effective, HRD leaders need to adopt the skills and principles of transformational and developmental leaders as well as the philosophy of servant leadership. HRD leaders need to develop specialized knowledge, skills, and abilities appropriate to enhance the effectiveness of HRD within their organization. Finally, HRD professionals need to execute several roles and adopt a number of responsibilities to become effective strategic HRD leaders.